AIX PS/2 Version 1.3 provides a set of six primary tools called EZ-UTILITIES, used to assist in the system management and distribution of AIX PS/2 1.3. 
    ezmkverify & ezverify 

   Ezbackup, ezcustom, ezinstall, and ezmkverify/ezverify are used when building distribution media (boot diskette, installation diskette and backup media) perform routine system and/or user data backups and produce new distribution media when a system configuration change is made. Ezfilter and ezupdate are used to update existing AIX configurations. 

     The EZ-UTILITIES package is designed to aid in the propagation of a master system to a target machine. The use of these utilities assumes that the master system is fully installed and configured, then cloned or minimally tailored. The purpose of the EZ-UTILITIES is to make this
cloning process easier. The EZ-UTILITIES support both ITBU and 6157 family of tape devices 
    The EZ utilities run on a standalone AIX 1.2.1 system; TCF is not supported. This package will only work when the target machine is physically identical to the master machine or is a superset of it.

   The ezbackup utility is a front-end process for creating system and user data back ups.  It is used to produce a file list which is output to the standard out device and then may be directed to the backup command for actual media generation.  ezbackup contains specific code which makes the generation of machine back ups relatively simple. ezbackup contains options to create either a system back up, a user data back up, or a system wide back up.
            +------+   +------+   +---------------------+
ezbackup ---|      |---|      |---|                     |--->
            +- -s -+   +- -u -+   +- -e exclusion_file -+
            +---------------------+  +----------------------+
        >---|                     |--|                      |---|
            +- -d directory_name -+  +--- directory_list ---+
                                       ^                  |
Note: ezbackup must be run as super user.
Note: As part of ezbackup, the /etc/system file is copied to /etc/system.save each time ezbackup is executed.  This is done because when a new system is installed using the EZ utilities, the /etc/system file on the master system should be placed on the target system.  However, /etc/system can not be simply saved to back up media and later restored.  At the conclusion of an installation on a target system, the /etc/system.save file, if present, is copied to /etc/system. The user may choose not to have the /etc/system.save file backed-up by editing the /etc/sysexclude file to include an entry for the /etc/system.save file.  This will prevent /etc/system.save from being put on the back up media.  Otherwise the /etc/system.save file is included on the back up media and copied to /etc/system after installation.
-d directory_name  allows for specification of an alternate work directory.
       The name of the desired work directory is given as an argument. The work directory is used for temporary file space required by ezbackup during execution. The default work directory is /tmp. In all cases, ezbackup verifies that the work directory has sufficient space and generates a warning message if there is not enough space.
-e exclusion_file  allows for the specification of a desired exclusion file.
         The exclusion file should contain a list of complete pathnames forfiles or directories to be excluded from the back up list.
-s      creates a list of files required for a system back up.
        This list will include all files found on the system, excluding those files and directories listed in the default system exclusion file (/etc/sysexclude).  /etc/sysexclude is composed of files that are created during installation; and, therefore, do not have to be backed up. This option will back up both system and user files and directories.  If only system files and directories are to be backed-up, an exclude file containing a list of the user directories to exclude has to be specified on the command line using the -e option. This option cannot be used with the -u flag.
-u      creates a list of files required for a user data back up.
       This list will contain only those files and directories defined as being user files.  The /etc/usrlist file is created by the user to list files/directories to back up.  Additional directories to include in the back up list can be specified at the end of the command line. This option cannot be used with the -s flag.
directory_list  This file contains the full pathnames of directories to be added to the back up list.  
     When including this list with the -u option, the files to be backed up will include those listed in both lists (directory_list and /etc/usrlist).
  1.  To create a system minidisk back up:
           ezbackup -s -e /etc/usrlist | backup -ivf/dev/rst0 -s 6560 -d 1050
      This tells ezbackup to exclude a list of files contained within /etc/sysexclude and not to back up those directories listed in the /etc/usrlist file, as these directories are to be considered user files. The /etc/usrlist file needs to be created with an editor.  Without the list contained in this file all files are backed up. The output from ezbackup is piped to the backup command which displays the files as they are being backed up.  An Internal Tape Backup Unit (ITBU), which contains an 80MB tape, is the output device.
  2.  To create a user files back up:
           ezbackup -u -d /usr/work | backup -ivf/dev/rst0 -s 6560 -d 1050
      This tells ezbackup to back up only those files whose names are contained within the /etc/usrlist file and to use the /usr/work directory as its work directory. You must create the /etc/usrlist file containing a list of files that are to be considered user files.  The output from ezbackup is piped to the backup command which displays the files as they are being backed up.  An Internal Tape Backup Unit (ITBU), which contains an 80MB tape, is the output device.
/etc/sysexclude  Default system exclusion file.
/etc/usrlist     List of directories/files to include in user back up.
/etc/system      Default system configuration file.

   ezcustom is used for creating customized boot and install diskettes.  These diskettes allow for exact re-creation of the current system configurations on another system.  The customized diskettes contain the information necessary to allow the install process to continue without user input. The information provided when using the existing installation tools results in different values being stored in the system NVRAM (time zone, monitor type, etc.) and in the creation of AIX minidisks.  The boot diskette produced by ezcustom contains an image of the system NVRAM while the install diskette contains information describing the AIX minidisks.

   During the actual installation phase of the EZ utilities, a disk space check is done on the target machine.  If the target machine is smaller than the master system, an error message is provided and EZ install is aborted.  Check the fsmap1 file described below for the actual disk space needed on the target machine to perform the installation.  If the targer machine is larger than or equal to the master machine, the installation continues.  A warning message is provided before any AIX minidisks is deleted.  At this point, a user may choose 'n' to abort EZ install or choose 'y' to delete the minidisks and continue with the installation.

Note:  If you choose 'n' to abort EZ install, you must remember to use the original boot diskette (NOT EZ boot) to reboot the system and restore the values which have been changed in NVRAM by EZ install. ezcustom must be run as super user.

SYNTAX ezcustom

Once the ezcustom script is started, the primary menu is displayed:

              [1]  Make boot diskette
              [2]  Make install diskette
              [3]  Change defaults
              [q]  quit

         Enter option:

Chose the option by entering the corresponding number or "q".  This menu returns after each option has completed.

The following are the options available from the ezcustom primary menu:

[1]  Make boot diskette This option creates a single diskette or multiple diskettes which are used when booting the new system.

     Informational messages will first be displayed.  Then the system inquires if you wish to format 
     a diskette and formats it will a file system when requested.

     Then the following message is displayed:
          Will copy the created filesystem onto the diskette(s)
          The system will prompt you for diskettes as needed
          Insert diskette 1 into /dev/fd0 and press Enter

     Insert the diskette to create the boot diskette.  The primary menu is re-displayed when finished.

[2]  Make install diskette This option creates a customized install diskette based upon the current system's configurations. The current system's install diskette and a blank diskette are required for execution of this option.

     First a message stating that the contents of the /etc/install_devs file is being read is displayed.  Then a menu listing the entries contained in this file is displayed.  This menu is used to determine which devices will be eligible installation devices.  To choose those devices to be installed on the system, enter the number corresponding to the name of the desired device.  A comma or space should be placed between each number.  Press the enter key to choose all the devices listed.  If no specific devices are chosen the maximum number will be selected (from the top to the bottom of the list).

     The selected device entries (as taken from the /etc/install_devs file) are put into a file called inst_devs, and placed in the /etc directory on the new install diskette.

     When the following prompt appears, insert the write-protected master  install diskette when the following prompt appears:

       Please insert the write-protected MASTER INSTALL DISKETTE to be
       customized in /dev/fd0 and press Enter:

     NOTE:  This diskette must be write-protected.

     Next the following prompt for the blank diskette is displayed:

       Please replace THE MASTER INSTALL DISKETTE in /dev/fd0 with a
       write-enabled diskette and press Enter:

     You will be asked if this diskette requires formatting.  This diskette must be write enabled, as it will be used to create the customized install diskette.

     Next the following query is displayed:

       Delete all user minidisks when using this INSTALL DISK?(default: yes)

     This query provides information for installation on the target system.  Enter 'no' to keep user minidisks, or 'yes' to have user minidisks deleted in the new system.

     Once writing to the install diskette is complete, the primary menu is  re-displayed.

[3]  Change defaults This option allows for modification of the default values used by ezcustom.
     A menu shows the default values of the information required by ezcustom. To modify one of these values, enter the number corresponding to the desired information field.  A query for the new data is displayed. After entering the new data, the defaults menu is redisplayed.  Once modifications are complete, enter the number corresponding to the Continue option to return to the primary menu.

     The change defaults menu screen appears as:

                      CHANGE DEFAULTS
                 1. Drive           -> (/dev/fd0)
                 2. KERNEL          -> (/local/unix.std)
                 3. NVRAMINFO       -> (/local/nvramcfg.info)
                 4. FS2FD           -> (/usr/sys/bin/fs2fd)
                 5. Work directory  -> (/tmp)
                 6. EZLOCATION      -> (/etc)

                 7. Continue

                      Select option:

     Descriptions of these fields are as follows:
Drive:                  Indicates the default diskette drive used to create the boot and  install diskettes.
KERNEL:            Indicates the default kernel used on the target system.
NVRAMINFO:   Indicates the location and name of the file containing information on the 
                              machine's NVRAM.
FS2FD:                Indicates the location of the fs2fd module.  (The fs2fd module is used to move
                             the Kernel onto the boot diskette.)
Work directory:  Specifies the directory where ezcustom processing will take place.
EZLOCATION:   Specifies the directory where the files required by ezcustom are stored.  The 
                             required files are fsmap1 and nvram1.

Once execution of ezcustom has completed, the diskettes produced should be copied, and the originals stored in a safe place.

During execution of ezcustom, two files are created.  These files are used during the installation process.  The files created are /etc/fsmap1 and /nvram1.  Both files are in ASCII text format and may be edited after the customized diskette containing the file is mounted.

The /etc/fsmap1 file is placed on the customized install diskette.  This file contains descriptions of the AIX minidisks present on the master system. This file is used during target system installation to create minidisks which are copies of the master system.

    If the first line is "yes", all minidisks are deleted.  If the first line is "no", system minidisks are deleted, but user minidisks are not.  The default is "no".

    The following lines contain four fields separated by white space.  These fields are:
         name of minidisk
         disk number
         size of minidisk in 1K blocks
         number of inodes

    Comments are not allowed. Minidisks that are not being created must have a zero value as the  minidisk size.

    An example of the fsmap1 file:
         /u             0    0         0
         /              0    45000     4500
         /aixps         1    12000     1200
         /aixps/tmp     0    9000      100
         /user1         1    4000      400

    The previous example deletes all minidisks, does not create the /u minidisk, creates / on hdisk0 with a size of 45000 blks and 4500 inodes, creates the local minidisk, /aixps, on hdisk1 with a size of 12000 blocks and 1200 inodes, creates the /tmp minidisk on /aixps/tmp on hdisk0 with a size of 9000 and 100 inodes, and creates a user minidisk on hdisk1 with a size of 4000 blocks and 400 inodes

The /nvram1 file is placed on the customized boot diskette.  It contains descriptions of the contents of the master system's NVRAM.  During target system installations, this file is referenced to update the target system's NVRAM.

The /nvram1 file contains the following information:

    The keyboard language to use
    The type of display that is installed on the machine
    The time zone to use
    Whether or not daylight savings time is used
    The NLS translation language
    The name of the machine

This data is structured in the manner shown above, with one entry per line. A sample nvram1 file would appear as:

    US English

   This machine's NVRAM would be set up with US English as the keyboard language, the display type as 8503, the time zone as Central Standard Time, Daylight saving time as being observed, the NLS translation language as US and the machine name as being aixtest.

/etc/fsmap1   contains descriptions of AIX minidisks
/nvram1       contains descriptions of the system's NVRAM

   ezfilter is a script used to select desired FSUs (Field Serviceable Units) from the standard IBM provided PTF diskette sets.  ezfilter is run on the master machine and is used as a means to create media for updating specifically selected FSUs on target machines.  The chosen FSUs, possibly from both sets of PTF diskettes, are combined onto one media (e.g. diskette, tape), and, in turn,
this newly created media is used by ezupdate to update a target machine.
Note: ezfilter must be run as super user.


            +-------------------+     +------------------------+
ezfilter ---|                   |-----|                        |---->
            +- -d input_device -+     +- -s storage_directory -+

        +--------------------+     +-----------+
    >---|                    |-----|           |-----|
        +- -o output_device -+  ^  +--- FSU ---+  |
                                |                 |
When ezfilter is executed, the following screens/displays will be seen:

    1.  If the input media has not been inserted in the proper device, a prompt for the input media will be displayed.  Insert the input media into the proper device.
    2.  Messages indicating the gathering of control information are shown.
    3.  If no FSUs were specified on the command line, a menu containing a listing of the FSUs available is displayed.  The FSUs will be specified by a short name and a description (e.g. extp   Extended Users Support).  This menu list will vary with the contents of the diskettes or tape being used for input.  When the prompt

                 Enter elements (<cr> for all elements):

        is shown, enter the names of those FSUs to be put on the customized update media, and press Enter.  These names should be separated by white space.
    4.  A series of informational messages telling ezfilter's progress will be displayed.
    5.  If the output media has not been inserted in the proper device, a prompt for the output media will be displayed.  Insert the output media into the proper device.
    6.  When the "Done" message is shown, execution of ezfilter has completed.

   ezfilter may be run multiple times to consolidate various FSUs from an update media set.  It must be run at least once for every update media set that contributes FSUs to the update image used by ezupdate. Each time ezfilter is run the FSUs selected are added to those already present in the storage directory.  FSUs can not be deleted from this directory.  If a FSU is erroneously chosen, the storage directory must be deleted and ezfilter must be re-executed.

   Should an FSU be selected multiple times, it will only be copied to the storage directory one time.  Once a selected FSU is in the storage directory, it will not be overwritten.  Subsequent selections of this FSU will be ignored.

The media produced by ezfilter is intended to be used with ezupdate for updating target machines and is also compatible with updatep.


-d input_device  expects an argument specifying device from which update material will be taken.

-s storage_directory      expects an argument specifying a directory where the FSUs being specified directory, ezfilter will display a warning message.

-o output_device   expects an argument specifying the desired output device.  '+' is used to specify no output.  '-' is used to send the output to stdout.

   An optional list of FSUs to include on the customized update media may be specified at the end of the command line. If this list is not included, a menu showing the possible FSUs to choose will be displayed during execution.

To create a tape of selected FSUs from diskette:
         ezfilter -d/dev/fd0 -s/local/updates -o/dev/st0

   This command uses the /dev/fd0 device for input, stores the FSUs being extracted in the /local/updates directory, and outputs the contents of the /local/updates directory to the /dev/st0 device (Internal Tape Backup Unit). Specification of the FSUs being extracted occurs during ezfilter execution, when the FSU listing menu is displayed.

   Ezmkverify is a program that creates a file containing the name of every file and directory that should be present on an installed system.  This file is named /etc/verify.install and is used by the ezverify program that is executed after a system installation occurs. Ezmkverify displays the file names as each entry is inserted in the verify.install file.  The verify.install file containing the required file list will automatically be produced and placed in the /etc directory.
NOTE: Ezmkverify must be run as super user.

SYNTAX  ezmkverify

   Ezverify is a program that runs after installation of a target system is complete.  The ezverify program uses the verify.install file produced by ezmkverify as input to ensure that the files installed on the new system are the same as those found on the original master system.  Ezverify can be made to execute automatically upon completion of installation by editing the /.post.custom file (uncomment the line invoking ezverify).  The /.post.custom file is a script that is invoked at the conclusion of system installation.

SYNTAX  ezverify

Note:   Ezmkverify must be run immediately prior to ezbackup to ensure that the verify.install file is present when ezbackup is run, and that the verify.install file accurately reflects the data present on the back up media.  Executing ezverify after /.post.custom is invoked may produce invalid error messages.

/etc/verify.install     list of all files and directories on system.
/.post.custom           script file invoked after system installation.

   ezupdate is a script that allows for selective application of updated FSUs to target machines.  ezupdate uses customized media produced by ezfilter (which is run on the master system) to update only those FSUs included on the media.  ezupdate allows for system updates to be applied with no user interaction.
Note: ezupdate must be run as super user.

            +--------+   +--------+   +--------+  +----------------+
ezupdate ---|        |   |        |   |        |  |                |---->
            +-  -s  -+   +-  -r  -+   +-  -F  -+  +-  -l logfile  -+

    >----|                        |----|
         +- input device or file -+
Once execution of ezupdate begins, the following screens are seen:

    1. Informational messages showing the progress of ezupdate are displayed.
    2. If the input media has not already been inserted, a prompt for insertion of the media is displayed.  Insert the media in the proper device and press Enter.
       Note: if a file is being used as input, no user interaction will be required.
    3. The names of the FSUs being updated are displayed, along with other informational messages.  These messages will vary with the exact FSUs being updated.
    4. When the messages "048-088  All requested update processing completed" and "ezupdate: successful completion" are displayed, ezupdate execution has completed.  If a machine reboot is required a message indicating this will also be displayed.

   Messages beginning with "ezupdate:" are always output to the terminal where ezupdate was invoked.  Messages beginning with a reference number (such as 048-088) go to stdout and may be redirected.

   Also, if ezupdate fails and exits with an error, the integrity of the system cannot be ensured.  It is best to use ezbackup to save the state of the system prior to running ezupdate.

Remote eupdate of a target system.
    1. The filtered update file created by ezfilter should be placed on the target system.  This may be done using any kind of remote connection that  allows for file transfer.
    2. Use a remote shell to run ezupdate on the target machine.  Specify the file transferred from the master machine as input.


-F  causes prerequisite check failures to be ignored and the update to be applied.  All prerequisite failures are still reported.

-l logfile  causes all output to be written to <logfile> rather than being sent to stdout.  A message is displayed on screen stating output is being directed to <logfile>.  This flag is ignored if the PTF image is to be read from diskettes (this requires volume exchange prompting).  Use of this option allows ezupdate to run in the background.

-r  results in an automatic shutdown and reboot following completion of the updates if the kernel has been rebuilt.  This flag is ignored if the PTF media is on diskette because a reboot would not succeed with a PTF diskette mounted in the diskette drive. Default action is for manual reboot.

-s  shows what steps would occur, but does not actually execute the updates. It lists which FSUs would have been updated.  System checks are performed to make sure the system is ready for updating.


To update a machine from tape and then automatically reboot (if necessary):
   ezupdate -r -l /tmp/update.log /dev/st0

  This command invokes ezupdate using the /dev/st0 device (the Internal Tape Backup Unit) for input, automatically reboots the machine after completion of the updates if a kernel rebuild occurs, and directs output to /tmp/update.log.

Content created and/or collected by:
Louis F. Ohland, Peter H. Wendt, David L. Beem, William R. Walsh, Tatsuo Sunagawa, Tomáš Slavotínek, Jim Shorney, Tim N. Clarke, Kevin Bowling, and many others.

Ardent Tool of Capitalism is maintained by Tomáš Slavotínek.
Last update: 08 May 2024 - Changelog | About | Legal & Contact