Systems with SynchroStream
(source HERE, page 43 physical; edited)
The SynchroStream Controller (SSC) uses IBM's most advanced technology
packaging (1992/1993) to integrate the following 5 major chips into a single
- Memory controller (interleaved)
- Micro Channel controller (BIU)
- DMA controller (32-bit, PIO/SCB)
- FIFO buffers
- ECC logic
Ed. The SSC is a direct evolution of the
Type 3 processor complex logic. What was once
implemented using 5+ individual chips now coexists on the same die. Despite the
strikingly different levels of integration, the two solutions are very similar
feature-wise, and even the register map remained largely the same.
This technology allows the high-speed interconnects and large streaming
pipes that form the SynchroStream Engine to provide state-of-the-art
The SSC synchronizes data traveling between major subsystems and allows it
to stream in parallel, at full bandwidth, to each subsystem concurrently.
At the heart of the computer, data is moving continually between processor,
cache, main memory and the Micro Channel. Typically there is a single path to
memory, so fast devices like processors have to wait for much slower I/O
devices, slowing down the performance of the entire system to the speed of the
slowest device. The SSC was designed to overcome this problem. It synchronizes
the operation of fast and slow devices and streams data to these devices to
ensure all devices work at their data at their optimum levels of
SSC is an intelligent device in that it predicts what data the devices will
need and loads it from memory before it is requested. When the device wants the
data, it is presented to it from the SSC and the device can continue working
immediately, as it does not have to wait for the data to be collected from
memory. When devices are moving data into memory, the SSC holds the data, and
writes it to memory when it is most efficient to do so. Since devices are not
moving data to and from memory directly, but to the SSC, each device has its
own logical path to memory. Devices do not have to wait for other slower
The SynchroStream engine operates by using a spinning valve that
continuously forms different connections between pipes. Once a connection is
made, data is streamed to the Micro Channel or processor at the highest
possible rates. Parallel paths allow data to stream to multiple sources at the
same time. The pipes even continue to stream after the connection is changed.
Data is always streaming to the Micro Channel and processor, allowing them to
operate at full bandwidth.
(source HERE, page 44 physical; marketing blurb)
Fast single chip implementation - Competitive designs are multi-chip
and have the performance overhead of moving information between chips.
SynchroStream technology provides a Zero Wait State Pentium implementation.
Intelligence - SSC is intelligent in that it predictively loads data
from memory so that requesting devices are not kept waiting. In addition,
writes to memory are stored within the SSC and written to memory to optimize
memory utilization. (Ed. "Intelligent" is probably
overselling it a little. The SSC most likely just buffers more data than was
RISC-like architecture - Pipelines are used to move data in a fast,
efficient manner between memory and the requesting device.
(Ed. And that makes it RISC-like?)
Stream data to Micro Channel devices - SSC can stream data to Micro
Channel devices at 40 MB/s.
Upgradable system implementation - Competitive system designs do not
have the unique Upgradable Processor Complex design so you cannot upgrade to
SynchroStream-like functions from earlier models.
(Ed. Other vendors also had their own upgradable
processor complexes. However, it's true that the bus logic was usually located
on the motherboard/backplane and therefore wasn't easily
Systems with SynchroStream
The SynchroStream controller can be found on the following boards:
The SSC is located on all Type 4 processor complexes, in the Server 95, 95
Array, and 500 systems. Implementation on the processor complex means that
current PS/2 Server 95 and PS/2 Model 90 users can easily upgrade their
machines to have SSC functions.
The part number of the chip used on the Type 4 boards is either 50G8192
(older?) or 8190587 (newer?). The two variants seems to be interchangeable and
the only obvious difference is a slightly different
packaging. It's unknown whether there are any internal
changes. Register-wise, the two variants are fully compatible.
The SSC can be also found on the
Reply TurboProcessor 60/80 planar and on
the Olivetti M6-520/540/560 system board
(on a daughter board called "Mad River Module"). The used part has a different
P/N - 50G6871, but seems to be mostly (or perhaps completely) register
compatible with the variant(s) used on the Type 4 platform. Pin compatibility
is however unknown currently.
The later 9576 and 9577 systems with the
Lacuna Planar have a different type of highly
integrated system controller chip. There is a
document that refers to it as the
"SynchroStream Controller", but that's the only known instance to use that
name. The chip uses a different package (CQFP-304), implements a subset of the
Type 4 SSC functionality, and uses a drastically different register map.
The package used to encapsulate the SSC is called CCGA - "Ceramic Column
Grid Array". It has 625 solder columns organized in a 25 x 25 grid - making it
a CCGA-625. It's a SMT (Surface-Mount Technology) device.
The ceramic base holds multiple layers of interconnects going from the
solder columns to the silicon die. The die itself is of the flip-chip design.
The package is equipped with an IHS - "Integrated Heat Spreader" that protect
the die and helps with heat dissipation.
The packaging slightly differs between some of the SSC variants. The 50G8192
and 50G6871 chips use a thick ceramic base (>3 mm) and an IHS with a notch
close to one of the corners - indicating pin 1. The 8190587 part has a
noticeably thinner base (~2 mm) and pin 1 is marked by a cut-off IHS corner.
The SSC uses a lower supply voltage of 3.7 - 3.75 V. This voltage is derived
from the 5 V rail using a low dropout voltage regulator
(LT1085CT in case of the Type 4