Adding a Reset Button

The Power Good Method
   In-line Push Button
   Push Button to Ground
   Schmitt Trigger
Maintenance Service Header
Reset Button Bracket

Content by Tomáš "Major Tom" Slavotínek.


One unfortunate thing about the PS/2 systems is that they lack a hardware reset button of any kind. That can be rather annoying when experimenting with different hardware and software configurations - if the system hangs and it can't process interrupt requests from the keyboard, you won't be able to use the Control+Alt+Delete combo to reboot the system. The only way out is to power-cycle the entire unit, which isn't ideal. It's slow, as you have to wait for the drives to spin down before you re-power the system. And if you have to repeat this procedure over and over, it's not only a big waste of time, but it's not exactly gentle to your hardware either...

Pretty much all personal computers can be modified with a hardware reset button, even if they don't have a provision for one by default. You just have to find a convenient spot for hooking into the reset circuit. That typically isn't too difficult, but it may require some reverse engineering, component level modification of the planar, or other actions that may be beyond one's comfort zone or capabilities. Thankfully, there are also some less invasive methods...

The Power Good Method (All PS/2s and other systems)

One approach that should work for all systems is to exploit the Power Good (PG) line that goes from the PSU to the motherboard/planar. This signal is typically wired directly to the reset circuit, and the PSU uses it to indicate to the planar that all voltages are within the specified range and stable. If the signal goes low (logic "0"), the system is put into a reset loop, because the reliable operation of the computer can't be guaranteed under these conditions. The system stays in this state until the Power Good signal returns to the high state (logic "1"), at which point the CPU can start executing the POST code and bring the system back up.

The Power Good signal is present on the power supply connector, and therefore it's usually relatively easy to access it and modify its behavior to cover our needs. All that without having to open the power supply or rework the planar board, making it less risky (for both you and the computer) and easily reversible.

Disclaimer: Even though this modification should be perfectly safe when done correctly you should be particularly careful when doing any PSU-related work and always double- or triple-check your work. The author is in no way responsible for any damages that may occur as a result of your actions. Proceed at your own risk!

There are many different ways of modifying the PG circuit - some are complex but potentially more compatible and reliable. In some cases, you may need to tweak the circuit (or parts values) to better work with a particular planar/PSU combination, but the following text should give you enough information to get it working.

In-line Push Button

This method is based around a momentary push button with a normally-open (NO) and normally-closed (NC) contact or contacts (either 3- or 4-pin). The switch gets installed on the Power Good line with the NC contacts between the PSU and the planar. The NO contact is tied to ground via a pull-down resistor (100 - 1000 Ω). The entire pull-down part of the circuit may seem redundant, but it's necessary because in most designs, the Power Good line is floating on the planar side, and with the generating side (PSU) disconnected (by the button), the signal may enter the "uncertain" region - preventing the circuit from operating correctly.

An optional capacitor (0.1 - 1 µF) may be added between the Power Good line and ground (on the planar side) to smooth out the switching a little bit (debouncing). But many IBM planars already have a capacitor and a gate with Schmitt-trigger inputs on the Power Good input, which makes it more immune to noise.

The main downside of this method is that the switch must be installed between the PSU and the planar. That makes it less suitable for systems where the planar power connector is mounted directly inside the PSU shroud (Models 50/70, 95). On other machines, you can snip the Power Good wire in the middle... if you don't mind doing so. Alternatively, you can create a cable extension or unclip the contact from the connector and replace it with a piece of wire terminated with a contact of the same style. Or, if you know what you are doing, you can open the PSU and unsolder the wire on that end.

This circuit was tested on some non-IBM systems, but given its principle of operation, it should work in all machines that use the classic active-high Power Good signal.

Push Button to Ground

Unlike the method described above, this approach doesn't need a break in the Power Good circuit. Instead, we will branch off the PG line and use a normally-open (NO) momentary push button to tie it to ground through a pull-down resistor.

Optionally we can add a parallel capacitor. This simple RC-circuit prevents the system from entering a reset-loop (normally that isn't an issue, but it's handy on systems with the DBA drive(s), as it prevents the drive(s) from revving up).

The problem with this method is that we are making assumptions about the PSU circuitry responsible for generating the Power Good signal. We don't know what the internal topology is or what the values of the used components are. These implementation details can differ from one PSU model to another, making parts selection for the reset circuitry more complicated. If the value of the added pull-down resistor is too low, the drawn current may upset the PSU control logic, trip one of the protections, and cause the unit to shut down. A value too high may prevent the reset circuit from operating reliably or at all. If you decide to add the parallel capacitor, the value selection becomes even more precarious (avoid high capacitance values, as these can once again upset the PSU). Determining the optimal values may require some reverse-engineering or experimenting with different combinations.

This method was suggested by Frank de Jong (thanks!). It's based on information from this thread, and Frank successfully tested it on his Model 30-286.

Frank said (slightly edited):
   The final working solution is as follows: wire the Power Good line to a pushbutton and insert a 0.47 µF electrolytic capacitor shunted by a 10 KΩ resistor between the pushbutton and Ground. The resistor value does not matter much; I tested several resistors from 1K to 100K and ended up using a 33K resistor. A higher value resistor will just drain the capacitor more slowly. (Ed.: And at a certain point the reset circuit would stop working altogether.)

Schmitt Trigger

Probably the most "kosher" way of implementing the reset circuit on the Power Good line would be to use a logic gate with Schmitt trigger inputs. The principle of operation is simple - use the gate (or gates) to realize a logic "AND" operation on the original PG signal and a signal that goes low when the reset button is pressed (pull-up to 5 V, button to GND, optional debouncing capacitor). That should give you a very reliable and universally usable circuit.

The obvious downside is the complexity of such a solution. You will have to put the logic on a small PCB, supply it with 5 V from the PSU, break the PG line, etc.

This approach is currently untested, but there's no reason why it shouldn't work since it's by far the most robust one and actually very close to how most planars implement the Power Good/Reset logic. More information will follow if I (or somebody else) decide to build and test the circuit.

Maintenance Service Header (Late server systems only)

In case of the late PS/2 systems with the JMP6 - Remote Maintenance Service Connector things are significantly simpler because the JMP6 pin header conveniently exposes the -RESET input. The "minus" prefix indicates that the signal is "active low" - the "action" happens when it's tied to ground (logic "0"). In this case, it means that if we connect pin 3 of JMP6 to ground, the system will reset.

So, all we need is a regular button - ideally, one that already has a pair of standalone pin header connectors attached (for example a power button from any ATX case). Then just wire one end to pin 3 of JMP6 and the other to ground. On the 9595A planar you can take ground from pin 1 or 3 of the nearby J103 - Remote Power-ON header. On the 9585 K/N board, you can use pin "0" of the JMP2 - PAP header.

9595(A) Planar reset button wiring

9585 K/N Planar reset button wiring

When you have the button wired in and tested, it's time to find some convenient place to put it. If you have the machine opened most of the time, just hang it off the top side of the DASD cage, or put it to one of the 3.5" bays where it can be accessed even with the side panel installed.

Reset Button Bracket

If you wish to use the switch even with the machine fully assembled, you will have to do some minor modifications. Probably the easiest and least invasive approach is to mount the switch to one of the MCA slot covers. The covers are easy to remove, and you are not risking damage to any of the other parts that may be more difficult to replace, should something go wrong. The exact mounting method will differ depending on the switch type. I would recommend a circular button that comes with a nut and a screw thread cut to its body. All you need to install one of these is a hole of the appropriate diameter...

To avoid unintentional system resets it may be a good idea to use a flat button that sits almost flush with the bracket and one that requires a slightly higher push force to operate (see the pictures for an example).

If the switch you've used has exposed solder contacts like the one on the photos, you should add some heat-shrink tubing or some other insulation over the contacts.

You can ignore the extra two wires on the photos above, these just supply power to the LED inside the button (it has no effect on the reset circuit itself).

I've decided to use the bottom-most Slot 8 for the reset bracket, as it can be easily located without looking. I usually don't install any adapters to this slot anyway (makes it easier to remove the processor complex and it also gives it some extra airflow).

Content created and/or collected by:
Louis F. Ohland, Peter H. Wendt, David L. Beem, William R. Walsh, Tatsuo Sunagawa, Tomáš Slavotínek, Jim Shorney, Tim N. Clarke, Kevin Bowling, and many others.

Ardent Tool of Capitalism is maintained by Tomáš Slavotínek.
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