AIX for PS/2 X Windows User's Guide

                                                         AIX Operating System
                                                            IBM AIX X-Windows
                                                                 User's Guide

   2.0 Chapter 2.  AIX X-Windows Commands, Section 6

2.6 aixwm
2.6.1 Menu Modes 
2.6.2 Selection Methods 
2.6.3 Window Manager Command Menu
2.6.4 Set 
2.6.5 Tools
2.6.6 The Tools Menu Controller 
2.6.7 The Tools Menu File 
2.6.8 .Xdefaults Keywords

2.6 aixwm

   Purpose Provides window manager functions.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 11

Description
   The window manager allows you to manipulate windows on the screen. aixwm does the following:

   _   Implements overlapping windows
   _   Allows windows to be moved, hidden, and resized
   _   Allows the order of the windows in a stack of overlapping windows to be manipulated
   _   Allows the keyboard focus to be attached to a window
   _   Allows commands to be invoked from a window
   _   Allows various display options to be set.

   While performing window manager operations, the window manager normally takes control of the screen at various times to assure that the screen image remains correct.  When this happens, requests from other applications are temporarily suspended until the window manager finishes the operation.

aixwm Flags

b=f 
     Specifies an association between a button (b) and a function (f).
        b can be one of the following:
          l    left
          r    right
          m    both (middle)

         l indicates the left mouse button, r indicates the right mouse button, and m indicates the both mouse button.  When using a three-button mouse, specify m by pressing the middle button.

             f can be one of the following functions:
          c    circulate
          C    Cancel
          f    focus
          h    hide/show
          l    lower
          m    move
          p    pop button used to pop up command menu at the mouse cursor position 
          P    Print
          r    raise
          R    Refresh
          S    Set
          T    Tools
          z    resize

-display name:number
     Identifies the host name and display number where aixwm is to run.  Normally, the host name and display number are obtained from the environment variable DISPLAY.  For more information, refer to "Display Specification" in topic 2.3.5.

-fi font
     Specifies an icon font to use when hiding a window.  Any fixed-width font can be used. The default is Rom14.500 for a large display and Rom10.500 for a small display.

-fn font
     Specifies a font for use in display of the menu. Any fixed-width font can be used.  The default is Rom14.500 for a large display and Rom10.500 for a small display.

-fs font
     Specifies the font to use when sizing a window. Any fixed-width font can be used.  The default is Rom14.500 for a large display and Rom10.500 for a small display.

-ft font
     Specifies the font to use in the title bar for a client window.  Any fixed-width font can be used. The default is Rom14.500 for a large display and Rom10.500 for a small display.

-geometry geometry
     Specifies the location of the aixwm window.  The default is -0+0. Values for width and height, if entered, are not used.  For more information, refer to "Geometry Specification" in topic 2.3.2.

-h
     Displays the menu horizontally.  The default is vertical.

-H
     Specifies hide mode.  The default is off.

-%  num
     Controls where the icon is to be placed when hiding a window.  The default threshold amount is 5 pixels.
     If the mouse is moved more than a threshold amount or if this is the first time the window has been hidden, the icon appears at the location of the mouse cursor when the button is released. Otherwise, the icon reappears at its previous location.  A negative value disables this effect.

-@  num
     Specifies the width in pixels of the border when a window is focused.  The default is 5 pixels.

-q  printerqueue
     Specifies the printer queue to use when a request is issued to print the screen.

-r
     Enables reverse video.

-selectkey
     Specifies the selection key used in combination with the mouse button to select menu items automatically.  selectkey is one of the following:
            a      signifying left Alt (Alt) (Default)
            c      signifying Ctrl
            g      signifying right Alt (Alt Graphic)
            l      signifying Lockshift
            m      signifying left Alt (Meta)
            s      signifying Shift
            n      signifying none.

-tb
     Disables the display of the window manager title bar for client windows on startup.  By default, the window manager title bar is displayed for the client window on startup.

2.6.1 Menu Modes

  The window manager has two modes of operation:
      Normal
      Hidden.

   For more information about the hidden mode, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

   The default mode is normal.  The default pop-up button is the right button.  The default selection key is the Alt key.

   In the normal mode, the command menu is always visible.  The menu window's home position is the upper-right corner of the screen.  To perform an action, click any mouse button in the appropriate menu box and click the same button in the window you wish to select.

   To activate hidden mode, use the -H option.  In the hidden mode, the menu's home position is hidden until it is popped up.  The command menu pops up when the pop-up button is pressed.  At least one button must be defined to cause the command menu to pop up.  Whenever the pop-up button is clicked while the appropriate combination of Ctrl, Alt, and Shift keys are pressed, or any time a button is clicked in the background, the menu appears beneath the cursor.  You can then use the menu as defined for the pop-up button.

2.6.2 Selection Methods

   Selection within the menu can be done with one of the following methods:

   Move the mouse cursor to the window manager menu and select a menu item with any button.
   Press pop-up button to view window manager menu and then release button at a menu item.
   Pressing button and key combinations for automatic selection.  This mechanism, which is 
      represented in the window manager command menu, allows a key in combination with a 
      mouse button to automatically select a menu item and immediately apply the function to a 
      window. Automatic selection is applied to the window containing the mouse cursor.  For an 
      example of the window manager command menu, refer to "Window Manager Command
      Menu" in topic 2.6.3.

Pop-up Button Selection:  Pressing the pop-up button (by default with Alt down) moves the command menu with the previously selected item or the central one beneath the mouse cursor.  The menu remains at that location until an item is selected or until the mouse cursor is moved out of the menu.  By default, the pop-up button is the right button, but it can be defined to be any button.

   When a command is selected:
   The menu item remains selected until the command is completed.
   The menu is returned to its previous state and location if aixwm is in normal mode.  If the 
      menu is in hidden mode, the menu is removed from the display.

Note:   If the mouse cursor is moved out of the menu, nothing is selected.  This is useful if you decide not to select an item once the menu is activated.

Button/Key Selection:  aixwm reserves certain button/key combinations and interprets them as operations on existing windows.  Button/key selection can be used in place of the default mouse button and menu selection method to automatically select and run an operation.

   The key combination can be specified in the command line with some subset of the options:
   a     signifying left Alt (Alt)  (default)
   c     signifying Ctrl
   g     signifying right Alt (Alt Graphic)
   l     signifying Lockshift
   m     signifying left Alt (Meta)
   s     signifying Shift
   n     signifying none

   For example, if you specify the options -ca, the Ctrl and Alt keys must be down at the time a mouse button is pressed.  The option -n means that no keys need to be held down.  The option -n is not recommended because it means that application programs never receive unshifted mouse clicks.

2.6.3 Window Manager Command Menu

   The window manager displays a menu of commands that you can use to manipulate windows on the display.  By default, the menu is displayed vertically in the upper-right corner of the display.

   On your screen, the window manager command menu looks similar to the following:

   PICTURE 12

   Use the menu by selecting an item within the menu, and then applying the command to a window.  Once you select a menu item, aixwm controls the mouse until the command is completed or canceled.  You can deselect an item on the menu by clicking a different button than the one used to select the item.

   For example, to hide a window, you can use the following steps:

1.  Use mouse cursor to select Hide/Show in the menu.  Hide/Show is highlighted in the menu.
2.  Move the mouse cursor to the window to be hidden and press the same button.

   The window is hidden.  An icon window is displayed and Hide/Show is unhighlighted.

   The commands in the window manager command menu provide the following functions:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ Move            ¦ Moves a window.  When you select a window, you can  ¦
¦                 ¦ use the mouse to move an outline of the window.     ¦
¦                 ¦ When you release the button, the window is moved.   ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Lower           ¦ Pushes the window you select to the bottom of any   ¦
¦                 ¦ stack of overlapping windows.                       ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Resize          ¦ Resizes a window.  When you apply the mouse cursor  ¦
¦                 ¦ to a window, an outline of the window is displayed. ¦
¦                 ¦ Moving the mouse cursor changes the size of the     ¦
¦                 ¦ outline, leaving the opposite corner fixed.  The    ¦
¦                 ¦ corner that moves depends on the location of the    ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor when the button is pressed.            ¦
¦                 ¦                                                     ¦
¦                 ¦ The window is divided into a logical grid of four   ¦
¦                 ¦ rectangles.  If the mouse cursor is in one of the   ¦
¦                 ¦ four corner rectangles, the corner closest to the   ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor is moved.  When the button is released,¦
¦                 ¦ the window is resized.                              ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Focus           ¦ Attaches the keyboard to a window.  Keyboard input   ¦
¦                 ¦ goes to that window even when the mouse cursor is    ¦
¦                 ¦ outside the window.  It also raises the focused      ¦
¦                 ¦ window.   Focusing the background detaches the       ¦
¦                 ¦ keyboard from any window by attaching it to the      ¦
¦                 ¦ background window.  When no window is focused, the   ¦
¦                 ¦ keyboard input goes to the window that contains the  ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor.  The focused window is highlighted by  ¦
¦                 ¦ a partial frame.                                     ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Hide/Show       ¦ Makes a window into an icon or an icon into a        ¦
¦                 ¦ window.  When applied to an icon, Hide/Show makes    ¦
¦                 ¦ the original window reappear at its former position  |
¦                 ¦ on the screen.                                       ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ If a window has not provided an icon, the window     ¦
¦                 ¦ manager creates its own icon and places the name of  ¦
¦                 ¦ the window or icon in it.  In this case, the mouse   ¦
¦                 ¦ movement and editing functions discussed in this     ¦
¦                 ¦ section are valid.                                   ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ If the mouse is moved more than a threshold amount   ¦
¦                 ¦ or if this is the first time the window is being     ¦
¦                 ¦ hidden, the icon appears at the location on the      ¦
¦                 ¦ screen where the button is released.  Otherwise, the ¦
¦                 ¦ icon reappears at its previous location.             ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ The threshold amount can be changed with the -%  num ¦
¦                 ¦ flag.  Giving a negative value disables this effect. ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ The icon name can be edited.  Pressing the Delete or ¦
¦                 ¦ the Backspace key deletes the last character of the  ¦
¦                 ¦ icon name, pressing Ctrl-U deletes the entire name,  ¦
¦                 ¦ pressing the Enter key detaches the keyboard from    ¦
¦                 ¦ the icon window, and pressing other character keys   ¦
¦                 ¦ appends the characters to the current name.          ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Cancel          ¦ Causes the X Server to disconnect from the selected  ¦
¦                 ¦ window.  The window is taken away.  Applications     ¦
¦                 ¦ usually terminate when disconnected from the X       ¦
¦                 ¦ Server.                                              ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Raise           ¦ Raises a client window to the top of the window      ¦
¦                 ¦ stack after it is manipulated (that is, moved or     ¦
¦                 ¦ resized).                                            ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Print           ¦ Prints the contents of a window on the printer.  The ¦
¦                 ¦ printer device name is obtained from the environment ¦
¦                 ¦ variable XPRINTDEV (for example, XPRINTDEV="-device  ¦
¦                 ¦ 3812").  Printer devices are supported as shown      ¦
¦                 ¦ below:                                               ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ 3812   IBM 3812 Pageprinter                          ¦
¦                 ¦ 5201   IBM 5201 Quietwriter Model 2                  ¦
¦                 ¦ 5202   IBM 5202 Quietwriter III.                     ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Circulate       ¦ Causes the lowest window in the stack of overlapping ¦
¦                 ¦ windows to be raised.  Successive applications       ¦
¦                 ¦ reveal each window in turn.                          ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Refresh         ¦ Clears the display and forces each application to    ¦
¦                 ¦ redraw its contents.                                 ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Set             ¦ See "Set" in topic 2.6.4.                            ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Tools           ¦ See "Tools" in topic 2.6.5.                          ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Both Set and Tools display a submenu below or above the mouse cursor location, depending on the space available.  The submenu remains visible until a selection is made or until the mouse cursor is moved out of the submenu.

2.6.4 Set

   Selecting Set from the window manager command menu displays a submenu through which you can set various display options.  Some of the options are toggle buttons that can be set either on or off.  If an option is marked with a + (plus sign), the option is set to on.

   The following table lists the options on the Set menu:
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ Autorepeat            ¦ Enables or disables key repeat while a key is ¦
¦                       ¦ pressed.                                      ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Hide Menu             ¦ Causes aixwm to hide the command menu until   ¦
¦                       ¦ it is activated.  Once a command is complete, ¦
¦                       ¦ the command menu is hidden again.             ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Horizontal Menu       ¦ Enables or disables the horizontal display of ¦
¦                       ¦ menu items.                                   ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Reverse Video         ¦ Reverses foreground and background colors in  ¦
¦                       ¦ the window manager menu.                      ¦ +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Raise After Action    ¦ Raises the window to the top of the window    ¦
¦                       ¦ stack after it is manipulated, for example,   ¦
¦                       ¦ moved or resized.                             ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Window Title Bar       ¦ Enables or disables the title bar for client  ¦
¦                        ¦ windows on startup.  The aixwm window manager ¦
¦                        ¦ automatically highlights the title bar when   ¦
¦                        ¦ the mouse cursor enters the window and        ¦
¦                        ¦ unhighlights it when the mouse cursor exits   ¦
¦                        ¦ the window.  If the window is the Focus       ¦
¦                        ¦ window, the window is highlighted regardless  ¦
¦                        ¦ of the location of the mouse cursor.          ¦
¦                        ¦                                               ¦
¦                        ¦ By clicking any mouse button on the title     ¦
¦                        ¦ bar, a client window is changed into an icon  ¦
¦                        ¦ window.  Then, by clicking any mouse button   ¦
¦                        ¦ on the icon window, the icon window changes   ¦
¦                        ¦ to the client window.  The client window      ¦
¦                        ¦ reappears at its former position on the       ¦ ¦                        ¦ screen.                                       ¦ ¦                        ¦                                               ¦
¦                        ¦ By default, if a window does not have a       ¦
¦                        ¦ window name, the title bar is not displayed.  ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Assign Button          ¦ Displays a copy of the command menu and       ¦
¦                        ¦ enables the association of a mouse button     ¦
¦                        ¦ with a menu item.  Clicking a button while    |
¦                        ¦ the mouse cursor is on a menu item associates ¦
¦                        ¦ the button with the item.                     ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Click                  ¦ Sets the keyboard click to either off (0) or  ¦
¦                        ¦ to a volume level from 1 through 100.  A menu ¦
¦                        ¦ with the current volume is displayed.         ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing the right button increases the value ¦
¦                        ¦ and pressing the left button decreases the    ¦
¦                        ¦ value.  Pressing both buttons sets the        ¦
¦                        ¦ volume.  -1 restores the default.(RT only)    ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Foreground Color       ¦ Displays a menu of available colors from      ¦
¦                        ¦ which you can select a foreground color.      ¦
¦                        ¦ (RT only)                                     ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Background Color       ¦ Displays menu of available colors from which  ¦
¦                        ¦ you can select a background color. (RT only)  ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Bell                   ¦ Sets the bell to either off (0) or to a       ¦
¦                        ¦ volume level from 1 through 100.  A menu with ¦
¦                        ¦ the current volume is displayed.  Pressing    ¦
¦                        ¦ the right button increases the value and      ¦
¦                        ¦ pressing the left button decreases the value. ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing both buttons sets the volume.  -1    ¦
¦                        ¦ restores the default.  (RT only)              ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Mouse                  ¦ Sets the acceleration and threshold for the   ¦
¦                        ¦ mouse.  A menu for each value is displayed in ¦
¦                        ¦ sequence.  Pressing the right button          ¦
¦                        ¦ increases the value and pressing the left     ¦
¦                        ¦ button decreases the value.  Pressing both    ¦
¦                        ¦ buttons sets the value.  -1 restores the      ¦
¦                        ¦ default.                                      ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Screen                 ¦ Sets the length of time in minutes before the ¦
¦                        ¦ server clears the screen.  A menu with the    ¦
¦                        ¦ default value is displayed.  Pressing the     ¦
¦                        ¦ right button increases the value and pressing ¦
¦                        ¦ the left button decreases the value.          ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing both buttons sets the time.  -1      ¦
¦                        ¦ restores the default.                         ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.6.5 Tools

   Selecting Tools displays a menu of application program names that can be invoked within aixwm.   Using this menu, you can select and start programs within X-Windows.  The Tools menu supports the invocation of three classes of programs:
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ X-Windows        ¦ Application programs written directly to the X     ¦
¦ applications     ¦ library and invoked by their command names.        ¦
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Emulation        ¦ Character application programs that are supported  ¦
¦ applications     ¦ by the aixterm HFT emulation function; invoked     ¦
¦                  ¦ with the "aixterm -e app" command.                 ¦
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Full-screen      ¦ Programs that write directly to the display        ¦
¦ applications     ¦ adapter card and run in monitor mode; invoked with ¦
¦                  ¦ the "xopen app" command.                           ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.6.6 The Tools Menu Controller

   The file /usr/lpp/X11/defaults/X.txt controls what is displayed in the command menu.  The format of a line in this file is:

   function_context__function_name_description

   aixwm uses the function_context field to invoke a function or open another pop-up text file and uses the function_name field to build the command menu.  The description is a comment field.

   You can modify X.txt by editing its contents with a text editor or, on the RT, by using the Menu Update command.  This command is similar to the Tools Update menu in Usability Services.  To use Menu Update, Usability Services must be installed on the system.  For more information about Usability Services, see Usability Services Reference.

   A file named Xtools.txt for the Tools pop-up is added within X.txt.  The default Xtools.txt contains the AIX shell and the analog and digital clock applications.

2.6.7 The Tools Menu File

   The file Xtools.txt contains information on application programs accessible through the Tools window.  The format of a line in this file is:

   ____exec_program_command_name_description

   aixwm uses the exec_program field to invoke the application program.  The exec_program field allows a command string to be supplied rather than just a command name.  This allows the customization of commands.  The command_name field is used to build the Tools pop-up.  The description is a comment field.

   For example, the command:

     aixterm -geometry 80x24 -fn Rom14.500 -em78

   specifies that the EM78 program be invoked in a new window with the Rom14.500 font.  This must be done to support invocation of full-screen applications.

2.6.8 .Xdefaults Keywords

   Default keywords used to customize aixwm .(Example default file  /usr/lpp/X11/defaults)

bodyFont
            Specifies any fixed-width body font used for the aixwm menu.

frameWidth
            Specifies the width of the border in pixels when you choose to focus on a window.  One way to focus on a window is to choose Focus from the window manager menu.  When you focus on a window, all keyboard input goes to that window regardless of the location of the mouse cursor.

geometry
            Specifies the location of the window manager.  For more information about geometry, see "Geometry Specification" in topic 2.3.2.

hide
            If true, it enables hide mode.

iconFont
            Specifies the font used in the icon window.

iconifyDelta
            Controls where the icon window is to be placed when using the Hide option from the window manager menu.  If this is the first time that the window has been hidden, or if the mouse is moved more than a threshold amount, the icon window is displayed at the location on the screen where the button is released.  Otherwise, the icon window reappears at its previous location.  A negative value disables this effect.

            Note:  For more information about the mouse threshold, see -t flag on page 2.8.

keyCombination
            Specifies the selection key to be used by the window manager.

leftButton
            Specifies an association between the left button and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

menuFormat
            If h is indicated, it displays the menu horizontally.

middleButton
            Specifies an association between both buttons and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

raised
            Raises a client window to the top of the window stack after it is manipulated (that is, moved or resized).

queueName
            Specifies the printer queue to use when a request is issued to print the screen.

reverseVideo
            If true, it reverses the foreground and background color.

rightButton
            Specifies an association between the right button and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

sizeFont
            Specifies any fixed-width font as the default font used when displaying the new geometry while resizing a window.

titleBar
            Disables the title bar for client windows at startup.

titleFont
            Specifies the title font to use in the title bar of the client windows.

   For more information about these keywords, see "Changing X-Windows Defaults" in topic 3.3.
 
 

Content created and/or collected by:
Louis Ohland, Peter Wendt, William Walsh, Kevin Bowling, Jim Shorney, Tim Clarke, David Beem, Tatsuo Sunagawa, Tomáš Slavotínek, and many others.

Ardent Tool of Capitalism - MAD Edition! is maintained by Tomáš Slavotínek.
Last update: 03 Mar 2021 - Changes & Credits | Legal Info & Contact