AIX for PS/2 X Windows User's Guide

                                                         AIX Operating System
                                                            IBM AIX X-Windows
                                                                 User's Guide
                   Chapter 2.  AIX X-Windows Commands

   2.0 Chapter 2.  AIX X-Windows Commands

   Subtopics
   2.1 CONTENTS
   2.2 About This Chapter
   2.3 General Information
   2.4 Syntax Diagrams
   2.5 aixterm
   2.6 aixwm
   2.7 keycomp
   2.8 X
   2.9 xclock
   2.10 xhost
   2.11 xinit
   2.12 xopen
   2.1 CONTENTS
 

2.6.1 Menu Modes

  The window manager has two modes of operation:
      Normal
      Hidden.

   For more information about the hidden mode, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

   The default mode is normal.  The default pop-up button is the right button.  The default selection key is the Alt key.

   In the normal mode, the command menu is always visible.  The menu window's home position is the upper-right corner of the screen.  To perform an action, click any mouse button in the appropriate menu box and click the same button in the window you wish to select.

   To activate hidden mode, use the -H option.  In the hidden mode, the menu's home position is hidden until it is popped up.  The command menu pops up when the pop-up button is pressed.  At least one button must be defined to cause the command menu to pop up.  Whenever the pop-up button is clicked while the appropriate combination of Ctrl, Alt, and Shift keys are pressed, or any time a button is clicked in the background, the menu appears beneath the cursor.  You can then use the menu as defined for the pop-up button.

2.6.2 Selection Methods

   Selection within the menu can be done with one of the following methods:

   Move the mouse cursor to the window manager menu and select a menu item with any button.
   Press pop-up button to view window manager menu and then release button at a menu item.
   Pressing button and key combinations for automatic selection.  This mechanism, which is 
      represented in the window manager command menu, allows a key in combination with a 
      mouse button to automatically select a menu item and immediately apply the function to a 
      window. Automatic selection is applied to the window containing the mouse cursor.  For an 
      example of the window manager command menu, refer to "Window Manager Command
      Menu" in topic 2.6.3.

Pop-up Button Selection:  Pressing the pop-up button (by default with Alt down) moves the command menu with the previously selected item or the central one beneath the mouse cursor.  The menu remains at that location until an item is selected or until the mouse cursor is moved out of the menu.  By default, the pop-up button is the right button, but it can be defined to be any button.

   When a command is selected:
   The menu item remains selected until the command is completed.
   The menu is returned to its previous state and location if aixwm is in normal mode.  If the 
      menu is in hidden mode, the menu is removed from the display.

Note:   If the mouse cursor is moved out of the menu, nothing is selected.  This is useful if you decide not to select an item once the menu is activated.

Button/Key Selection:  aixwm reserves certain button/key combinations and interprets them as operations on existing windows.  Button/key selection can be used in place of the default mouse button and menu selection method to automatically select and run an operation.

   The key combination can be specified in the command line with some subset of the options:

   a      signifying left Alt (Alt)   (default)
   c      signifying Ctrl
   g      signifying right Alt (Alt Graphic)
   l      signifying Lockshift
   m      signifying left Alt (Meta)
   s      signifying Shift
   n      signifying none.

   For example, if you specify the options -ca, the Ctrl and Alt keys must be down at the time a mouse button is pressed.  The option -n means that no keys need to be held down.  The option -n is not recommended because it means that application programs never receive unshifted mouse clicks.

2.6.3 Window Manager Command Menu

   The window manager displays a menu of commands that you can use to manipulate windows on the display.  By default, the menu is displayed vertically in the upper-right corner of the display.

   On your screen, the window manager command menu looks similar to the following:

   PICTURE 12

   Use the menu by selecting an item within the menu, and then applying the command to a window.  Once you select a menu item, aixwm controls the mouse until the command is completed or canceled.  You can deselect an item on the menu by clicking a different button than the one used to select the item.

   For example, to hide a window, you can use the following steps:

1.  Use mouse cursor to select Hide/Show in the menu.  Hide/Show is highlighted in the menu.
2.  Move the mouse cursor to the window to be hidden and press the same button.

   The window is hidden.  An icon window is displayed and Hide/Show is unhighlighted.

   The commands in the window manager command menu provide the following functions:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ Move            ¦ Moves a window.  When you select a window, you can  ¦
¦                 ¦ use the mouse to move an outline of the window.     ¦
¦                 ¦ When you release the button, the window is moved.   ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Lower           ¦ Pushes the window you select to the bottom of any   ¦
¦                 ¦ stack of overlapping windows.                       ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Resize          ¦ Resizes a window.  When you apply the mouse cursor  ¦
¦                 ¦ to a window, an outline of the window is displayed. ¦
¦                 ¦ Moving the mouse cursor changes the size of the     ¦
¦                 ¦ outline, leaving the opposite corner fixed.  The    ¦
¦                 ¦ corner that moves depends on the location of the    ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor when the button is pressed.            ¦
¦                 ¦                                                     ¦
¦                 ¦ The window is divided into a logical grid of four   ¦
¦                 ¦ rectangles.  If the mouse cursor is in one of the   ¦
¦                 ¦ four corner rectangles, the corner closest to the   ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor is moved.  When the button is released,¦
¦                 ¦ the window is resized.                              ¦
+-----------------+-----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Focus           ¦ Attaches the keyboard to a window.  Keyboard input   ¦
¦                 ¦ goes to that window even when the mouse cursor is    ¦
¦                 ¦ outside the window.  It also raises the focused      ¦
¦                 ¦ window.   Focusing the background detaches the       ¦
¦                 ¦ keyboard from any window by attaching it to the      ¦
¦                 ¦ background window.  When no window is focused, the   ¦
¦                 ¦ keyboard input goes to the window that contains the  ¦
¦                 ¦ mouse cursor.  The focused window is highlighted by  ¦
¦                 ¦ a partial frame.                                     ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Hide/Show       ¦ Makes a window into an icon or an icon into a        ¦
¦                 ¦ window.  When applied to an icon, Hide/Show makes    ¦
¦                 ¦ the original window reappear at its former position  |
¦                 ¦ on the screen.                                       ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ If a window has not provided an icon, the window     ¦
¦                 ¦ manager creates its own icon and places the name of  ¦
¦                 ¦ the window or icon in it.  In this case, the mouse   ¦
¦                 ¦ movement and editing functions discussed in this     ¦
¦                 ¦ section are valid.                                   ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ If the mouse is moved more than a threshold amount   ¦
¦                 ¦ or if this is the first time the window is being     ¦
¦                 ¦ hidden, the icon appears at the location on the      ¦
¦                 ¦ screen where the button is released.  Otherwise, the ¦
¦                 ¦ icon reappears at its previous location.             ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ The threshold amount can be changed with the -%  num ¦
¦                 ¦ flag.  Giving a negative value disables this effect. ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ The icon name can be edited.  Pressing the Delete or ¦
¦                 ¦ the Backspace key deletes the last character of the  ¦
¦                 ¦ icon name, pressing Ctrl-U deletes the entire name,  ¦
¦                 ¦ pressing the Enter key detaches the keyboard from    ¦
¦                 ¦ the icon window, and pressing other character keys   ¦
¦                 ¦ appends the characters to the current name.          ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Cancel          ¦ Causes the X Server to disconnect from the selected  ¦
¦                 ¦ window.  The window is taken away.  Applications     ¦
¦                 ¦ usually terminate when disconnected from the X       ¦
¦                 ¦ Server.                                              ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Raise           ¦ Raises a client window to the top of the window      ¦
¦                 ¦ stack after it is manipulated (that is, moved or     ¦
¦                 ¦ resized).                                            ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Print           ¦ Prints the contents of a window on the printer.  The ¦
¦                 ¦ printer device name is obtained from the environment ¦
¦                 ¦ variable XPRINTDEV (for example, XPRINTDEV="-device  ¦
¦                 ¦ 3812").  Printer devices are supported as shown      ¦
¦                 ¦ below:                                               ¦
¦                 ¦                                                      ¦
¦                 ¦ 3812   IBM 3812 Pageprinter                          ¦
¦                 ¦ 5201   IBM 5201 Quietwriter Model 2                  ¦
¦                 ¦ 5202   IBM 5202 Quietwriter III.                     ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Circulate       ¦ Causes the lowest window in the stack of overlapping ¦
¦                 ¦ windows to be raised.  Successive applications       ¦
¦                 ¦ reveal each window in turn.                          ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Refresh         ¦ Clears the display and forces each application to    ¦
¦                 ¦ redraw its contents.                                 ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Set             ¦ See "Set" in topic 2.6.4.                            ¦
+-----------------+------------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Tools           ¦ See "Tools" in topic 2.6.5.                          ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Both Set and Tools display a submenu below or above the mouse cursor location, depending on the space available.  The submenu remains visible until a selection is made or until the mouse cursor is moved out of the submenu.

2.6.4 Set

   Selecting Set from the window manager command menu displays a submenu through which you can set various display options.  Some of the options are toggle buttons that can be set either on or off.  If an option is marked with a + (plus sign), the option is set to on.

   The following table lists the options on the Set menu:
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ Autorepeat            ¦ Enables or disables key repeat while a key is ¦
¦                       ¦ pressed.                                      ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Hide Menu             ¦ Causes aixwm to hide the command menu until   ¦
¦                       ¦ it is activated.  Once a command is complete, ¦
¦                       ¦ the command menu is hidden again.             ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Horizontal Menu       ¦ Enables or disables the horizontal display of ¦
¦                       ¦ menu items.                                   ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Reverse Video         ¦ Reverses foreground and background colors in  ¦
¦                       ¦ the window manager menu.                      ¦ +-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Raise After Action    ¦ Raises the window to the top of the window    ¦
¦                       ¦ stack after it is manipulated, for example,   ¦
¦                       ¦ moved or resized.                             ¦
+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Window Title Bar       ¦ Enables or disables the title bar for client  ¦
¦                        ¦ windows on startup.  The aixwm window manager ¦
¦                        ¦ automatically highlights the title bar when   ¦
¦                        ¦ the mouse cursor enters the window and        ¦
¦                        ¦ unhighlights it when the mouse cursor exits   ¦
¦                        ¦ the window.  If the window is the Focus       ¦
¦                        ¦ window, the window is highlighted regardless  ¦
¦                        ¦ of the location of the mouse cursor.          ¦
¦                        ¦                                               ¦
¦                        ¦ By clicking any mouse button on the title     ¦
¦                        ¦ bar, a client window is changed into an icon  ¦
¦                        ¦ window.  Then, by clicking any mouse button   ¦
¦                        ¦ on the icon window, the icon window changes   ¦
¦                        ¦ to the client window.  The client window      ¦
¦                        ¦ reappears at its former position on the       ¦ ¦                        ¦ screen.                                       ¦ ¦                        ¦                                               ¦
¦                        ¦ By default, if a window does not have a       ¦
¦                        ¦ window name, the title bar is not displayed.  ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Assign Button          ¦ Displays a copy of the command menu and       ¦
¦                        ¦ enables the association of a mouse button     ¦
¦                        ¦ with a menu item.  Clicking a button while ¦                        ¦ the mouse cursor is on a menu item associates ¦
¦                        ¦ the button with the item.                     ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Click                  ¦ Sets the keyboard click to either off (0) or  ¦
¦                        ¦ to a volume level from 1 through 100.  A menu ¦
¦                        ¦ with the current volume is displayed.         ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing the right button increases the value ¦
¦                        ¦ and pressing the left button decreases the    ¦
¦                        ¦ value.  Pressing both buttons sets the        ¦
¦                        ¦ volume.  -1 restores the default.(RT only)   ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Foreground Color       ¦ Displays a menu of available colors from      ¦
¦                        ¦ which you can select a foreground color.      ¦
¦                        ¦ (RT only)    ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Background Color       ¦ Displays menu of available colors from which  ¦
¦                        ¦ you can select a background color. (RT only)  ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Bell                   ¦ Sets the bell to either off (0) or to a       ¦
¦                        ¦ volume level from 1 through 100.  A menu with ¦
¦                        ¦ the current volume is displayed.  Pressing    ¦
¦                        ¦ the right button increases the value and      ¦
¦                        ¦ pressing the left button decreases the value. ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing both buttons sets the volume.  -1    ¦
¦                        ¦ restores the default.  (RT only)              ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Mouse                  ¦ Sets the acceleration and threshold for the   ¦
¦                        ¦ mouse.  A menu for each value is displayed in ¦
¦                        ¦ sequence.  Pressing the right button          ¦
¦                        ¦ increases the value and pressing the left     ¦
¦                        ¦ button decreases the value.  Pressing both    ¦
¦                        ¦ buttons sets the value.  -1 restores the      ¦
¦                        ¦ default.                                      ¦
+------------------------+-----------------------------------------------¦
¦ Screen                 ¦ Sets the length of time in minutes before the ¦
¦                        ¦ server clears the screen.  A menu with the    ¦
¦                        ¦ default value is displayed.  Pressing the     ¦
¦                        ¦ right button increases the value and pressing ¦
¦                        ¦ the left button decreases the value.          ¦
¦                        ¦ Pressing both buttons sets the time.  -1      ¦
¦                        ¦ restores the default.                         ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.6.5 Tools

   Selecting Tools displays a menu of application program names that can be invoked within aixwm.   Using this menu, you can select and start programs within X-Windows.  The Tools menu supports the invocation of three classes of programs:
   +-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
¦ X-Windows        ¦ Application programs written directly to the X     ¦
¦ applications     ¦ library and invoked by their command names.        ¦
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Emulation        ¦ Character application programs that are supported  ¦
¦ applications     ¦ by the aixterm HFT emulation function; invoked     ¦
¦                  ¦ with the "aixterm -e app" command.                 ¦
+------------------+----------------------------------------------------¦
¦ Full-screen      ¦ Programs that write directly to the display        ¦
¦ applications     ¦ adapter card and run in monitor mode; invoked with ¦
¦                  ¦ the "xopen app" command.                           ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.6.6 The Tools Menu Controller

   The file /usr/lpp/X11/defaults/X.txt controls what is displayed in the command menu.  The format of a line in this file is:

   function_context__function_name_description

   aixwm uses the function_context field to invoke a function or open another pop-up text file and uses the function_name field to build the command menu.  The description is a comment field.

   You can modify X.txt by editing its contents with a text editor or, on the RT, by using the Menu Update command.  This command is similar to the Tools Update menu in Usability Services.  To use Menu Update, Usability Services must be installed on the system.  For more information about Usability Services, see Usability Services Reference.

   A file named Xtools.txt for the Tools pop-up is added within X.txt.  The default Xtools.txt contains the AIX shell and the analog and digital clock applications.

2.6.7 The Tools Menu File

   The file Xtools.txt contains information on application programs accessible through the Tools window.  The format of a line in this file is:

   ____exec_program_command_name_description

   aixwm uses the exec_program field to invoke the application program.  The exec_program field allows a command string to be supplied rather than just a command name.  This allows the customization of commands.  The command_name field is used to build the Tools pop-up.  The description is a comment field.

   For example, the command:

     aixterm -geometry 80x24 -fn Rom14.500 -em78

   specifies that the EM78 program be invoked in a new window with the Rom14.500 font.  This must be done to support invocation of full-screen applications.

2.6.8 .Xdefaults Keywords

   Default keywords used to customize aixwm .(Example default file  /usr/lpp/X11/defaults)

bodyFont
            Specifies any fixed-width body font used for the aixwm menu.

frameWidth
            Specifies the width of the border in pixels when you choose to focus on a window.  One way to focus on a window is to choose Focus from the window manager menu.  When you focus on a window, all keyboard input goes to that window regardless of the location of the mouse cursor.

geometry
            Specifies the location of the window manager.  For more information about geometry, see "Geometry Specification" in topic 2.3.2.

hide
            If true, it enables hide mode.

iconFont
            Specifies the font used in the icon window.

iconifyDelta
            Controls where the icon window is to be placed when using the Hide option from the window manager menu.  If this is the first time that the window has been hidden, or if the mouse is moved more than a threshold amount, the icon window is displayed at the location on the screen where the button is released.  Otherwise, the icon window reappears at its previous location.  A negative value disables this effect.

            Note:  For more information about the mouse threshold, see -t flag on page 2.8.

keyCombination
            Specifies the selection key to be used by the window manager.

leftButton
            Specifies an association between the left button and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

menuFormat
            If h is indicated, it displays the menu horizontally.

middleButton
            Specifies an association between both buttons and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

raised
            Raises a client window to the top of the window stack after it is manipulated (that is, moved or resized).

queueName
            Specifies the printer queue to use when a request is issued to print the screen.

reverseVideo
            If true, it reverses the foreground and background color.

rightButton
            Specifies an association between the right button and a function. For more information, see "Button/Key Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

sizeFont
            Specifies any fixed-width font as the default font used when displaying the new geometry while resizing a window.

titleBar
            Disables the title bar for client windows at startup.

titleFont
            Specifies the title font to use in the title bar of the client windows.

   For more information about these keywords, see "Changing X-Windows Defaults" in topic 3.3.

2.7 keycomp

   Purpose   Reads a textual description of the keyboard and produces a binary keymap file.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 13

   Description
   The keycomp command reads a textual description of the keyboard and produces a binary keymap file.  The keymap file is used to translate keystrokes into character strings.  For more information on the keymap file, see "Keyboard Specification" in topic 2.3.3.

   The keycomp command supports the full range of HFT keyboard mapping, including the Alt Graphic shift state, on non-U.S. keyboards only.

   You can use keycomp to define diacritical keys (dead keys).  The code-point combinations that produce the actual diacritical characters are predefined and cannot be changed using keycomp.  The pre-defined combinations are listed in the data stream section of the AIX Operating System Technical Reference.

   Seven different states are supported in the base keymap files.  Additional states are either mapped to single states or defined as UNBOUND (return nothing) for the keymap files.

2.7.1 Keycomp Source File

   The input file to keycomp consists of one or more lines, each beginning with an octal, decimal, or hexadecimal number designating an X-Windows keysym value.  (A keysym is a symbol that has been engraved on a keyboard key.)  Items follow the keysym, each representing the binding for a particular combination of the Ctrl, Alt, Shift, Lock, and Alt Graphic keys.  Items on the line are separated by a space.

   If only one item is present on a line, it represents the binding for this keysym regardless of the position of the shift keys.  The first 16 states are required in the source file.  If more than 16, but fewer than 32 states are provided, the last state is extended to all the missing states up to state 32.

   The bindings of items are made in the order defined below:

   +------------------------------------------------------------------+
   ¦ Table  2-1. Keycomp                                              ¦
   +------------------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #1   ¦ Base state; no Ctrl, Alt, Shift, Lock, or Alt Graphic     ¦
   ¦      ¦ down                                                      ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #2   ¦ Shift down                                                ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #3   ¦ Lock down                                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #4   ¦ Lock and Shift down                                       ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #5   ¦ Ctrl down                                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #6   ¦ Ctrl and Shift down                                       ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #7   ¦ Ctrl and Lock down                                        ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #8   ¦ Ctrl, Lock, and Shift down                                ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #9   ¦ Alt down                                                  ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #10  ¦ Alt and Shift down                                        ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #11  ¦ Alt and Lock down                                         ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #12  ¦ Alt, Lock, and Shift down                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #13  ¦ Alt and Ctrl down                                         ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #14  ¦ Alt, Ctrl, and Shift down                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #15  ¦ Alt, Ctrl, and Lock down                                  ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #16  ¦ Alt, Ctrl, Lock, and Shift down                           ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #17  ¦ Alt Graphic down                                          ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #18  ¦ Alt Graphic and Shift down                                ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #19  ¦ Alt Graphic and Lock down                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #20  ¦ Alt Graphic, Lock, and Shift down                         ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #21  ¦ Alt Graphic and Ctrl down                                 ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #22  ¦ Alt Graphic, Ctrl, and Shift down                         ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #23  ¦ Alt Graphic, Ctrl, and Lock down                          ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #24  ¦ Alt Graphic, Ctrl, Lock, and Shift down                   ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #25  ¦ Alt Graphic and Alt down                                  ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #26  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, and Shift down                          ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #27  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, and Lock down                           ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #28  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, Lock, and Shift down                    ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #29  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, and Ctrl down                           ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #30  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, Ctrl, and Shift down                    ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #31  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, Ctrl, and Lock down                     ¦
   +------+-----------------------------------------------------------¦
   ¦ #32  ¦ Alt Graphic, Alt, Ctrl, Lock, and Shift down              ¦
   +------------------------------------------------------------------+

2.7.2 Keycomp Source File Items

   Each item should be one of the following:

   An octal, decimal or hexadecimal number, indicating a keysym.
   A C character literal surrounded by single quotes.  Escape sequences
     (such as \252) are allowed.
   A C string literal surrounded by double quotes.  Standard C escape
     sequences are allowed within the string.
   The letter U, indicating no binding.  If there is no binding,
       XLookupMapping returns an empty string for this key combination.
   The string format "Dnn." to define a key position as a diacritical
      key.  There are 15 pre-defined diacritical keys.  XLookupMapping
      combines a specified diacritical key with the following key pressed 
      to determine the actual code point to be returned.  The code point
      returned is based on the pre-defined diacritical lookup table.
      Strings "D01" through "D15" are not allowed for keycomp.

   A comma can, but does not need to, follow each item.  A space or tab must separate the items, regardless of whether a comma follows each item.  A \ (backslash) after an item indicates that the item list is continued on the next line.  The \ should not be enclosed in single or double quotes.

   Blank lines are ignored, as are lines beginning with a # character (except control statements).  All text between # and the following line, including \, is ignored unless # is part of a string enclosed in single or double quotes.  This allows you to place comments at the end of a line that contains only a single item.

   The keycomp command can identify function key strings and compress these within the keymap file.  The set of function key strings is defined in the keyboard section of AIX Operating System Technical Reference.

   The source must specify the exact string to be returned.

   See the files /usr/include/X11/AIXkeymap.h and /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h for a list of keysyms and key names of function keys.

2.7.3 Keycomp Source File Control Statements

   The following control statements are recognized by keycomp:

   1.  #S Control Statement

       Lines starting with #S in the first column define which states are
       defined within the keycomp table.  This statement allows the states
       not being used to be compressed out of the keymap file.  If this line
       is not specified, it is assumed that all states are built into the
       table.  All states must be coded in the source file.

       The states not included in #S are UNBOUND and return nothing unless
       remapped to another state (see the #M control statement).

       The keycomp object file provides a state_mapping_table to map
       keyboard-state flags to indexes in the table.  The state_mapping_table
       maps the state detail of a KeyPressed event from an X Server to an
       index within the keymap table.

       Following #S is a series of numbers representing the states defined in
       Table 2-1 in topic 2.7.1.  The states provided are built into the
       table in the order in which they are defined.

       For example, the Alt key is normally mapped to index 9 in the keymap
       file.  With the following definition:

         #S 1 2 3 5 9 17

       the Alt key is mapped to index 5 because state #9 is the fifth state
       in the #S statement.

   2.  #M Control Statement

       Lines starting with #M in the first column define mapping of states to
       an index within the keymap table.  This statement allows specification
       of a state hierarchy as defined for the RT and allows mapping of
       multiple states to a single state.  For example, the #M statement
       enables Ctrl-Shift keys to be mapped to Ctrl keys.

       The format of a #M line is:

         #M STATE s1 s2 ... sn

       where states s1, s2, ... sn are mapped to state STATE.  STATE is a
       base state depending on the #S specifications.

       The #M line must follow all #S lines.  Multiple #M lines can be
       specified but must be specified after the #S statement.

       For example, the following line:

         #M 9 10 12

       maps the Alt-Shift and Alt-Lock-Shift states to Alt.

   To be compatible with Keyboard Description and Character Reference,
   keyboard files supplied with X-Windows contain the following control
   statements:

     #S 1 2 3 4 5 9 17
     #M 5 6 7 8 13 14 15 16 21 22 23 24 29 30 31 32
     #M 9 10 11 12 25 26 27 28
     #M 17 18 19 20

   Flags

   <infile                 Specifies a source file to be compiled by keycomp.

   >outfile                Specifies the name of the keymap file to be
                           created.

   Files

       /usr/include/X11/AIXkeymap.h
       /usr/include/X11/keysymdef.h

2.8 X

   Purpose Starts the X Server.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 14

   Description
   The X Server is a display server that runs on computers with bitmapped terminals.  (The X Server command does not run on the S/370 system.)  The X Server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from programs located either on the host system or on systems connected to it through a network.

   Unless you specify otherwise, only programs running on the host system can interact with the display.  To allow another system to use your display, you must define that system to a specific X Server with the xhost command. For more information on the xhost command, see "xhost" in topic 2.10.

   After the X Server is initialized, it sends unix:? AIX X-Windows to standard output, where ? is the display number.  This string is used by the xinit command to set the default DISPLAY environment variable.

   The X Server and all windows opened from it can be terminated by pressing Ctrl-Alt-Backspace.  Remote windows usually display an error message concerning a broken connection before they terminate.

   The X Server logs messages in the file /tmp/.X11-unix/X?, where ? is the display number.

X Flags
   The following flags have default values supplied with the program:

-a num 
     Specifies the acceleration.  The default is 4.  The  acceleration is a multiplier for mouse movement.  For  example, specifying 4 causes the cursor to move four times as  fast as the mouse.  The specified value must be a positive value greater than zero.

-bp color 
    Specifies a Blackpixel color for the display.  Generally, the Blackpixel value corresponds to the background color.  The  default depends on the display.

-c num
      Specifies key click volume (RT Only!).  The default is -1 or medium. Values supported are:
                0              off
                1 - 33         low
                -1 or 34 - 66  medium
                67 - 100       high

-D file
     Full path name of the color definition database file The default is /usr/lpp/X11/rgb/rgb. Refer to "dbm" in the IBM RT AIX Operating System Technical Reference.

-f num
      Specifies the beep volume (RT Only!).  The default is -1 or medium.  The supported values are the same as those supported for the -c num flag.

-fc font
    Specifies the cursor font for cursor glyphs and cursor masks.  The default depends on the operating system and the display.

   -fn font     Specifies the text font used as the default text font.  The
                default depends on the operating system and the display.

   -fp font     Specifies the path for fonts.  The default depends on the
                operating system and the display.

   -m           Specifies the use of monochrome display characteristics.
                (This option is supported on the RT only.)

   -n :num      Specifies the connection number.  Valid values for num are 0
                to 255.  The default is the next available number.  num is
                used by programs to communicate with a specific X Server.
                For example, the command:

                  X -n :18

                specifies that communication to the activated X Server takes
                place by unix:18 or by hostname:18.

   -p num       Specifies the screen saver interval.  This flag is used with
                the -s (screen saver timeout) flag to control the blanking of
                the screen.

   -r           Disables auto repeat.  The default is auto repeat enabled.

   -s num       Specifies the number of minutes to wait until making the
                display blank.  The default is 10 minutes.  A specified value
                must be a number greater than zero.

-t num
      Specifies the mouse threshold.  The default is 2 pixels. Acceleration takes effect only if the mouse is moved more than the mouse threshold in one time interval and only applies to the amount beyond the threshold.

-to num
     Specifies the number of minutes to elapse between connection checks.  The default is 60 minutes.  A specified value must be a positive number greater than zero.

-T
          Disables the Ctrl-Alt-Backspace key sequence that, by default, terminates the X Server and all windows opened from it.

-v
          Replaces the display with the current background color, after the amount of time specified by the -s flag.  By default, if the -v flag is not specified, the entire display is painted with the background tile after the amount of time specified by -s.  On color displays, random foreground and background colors are also used.

-wp color
   Specifies a Whitepixel color for the display.  Generally, the Whitepixel color corresponds to the foreground color.  The default depends on the display.

2.9 xclock

   Purpose Continuously displays the current time of day.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 15
 

   Description
   The xclock command gets the time from the system clock.  This time is displayed and updated by X-Windows in the form of either a digital or an analog clock.

xclock Flags

   -analog                 Sets analog display mode.  Draws a conventional
                           12-hour clock face with ticks for each minute and
                           stroke marks on each hour.  The default is digital
                           mode.

   -b num                  Specifies the width in pixels of padding white
                           space between the window border and anything
                           xclock displays.  The default is 10 in digital
                           mode and 2 in analog mode.

   -bd color               Specifies the border color on color displays.  The
                           default is black.

   -bg color               Specifies the color of the background on color
                           displays.  The default is white.

   -bw num                 Specifies the width in pixels of the border.  The
                           default is 1.

   -chime                  Specifies the sounding of a chime every 60 minutes
                           on the hour.  The default is off or zero.

   -digital                Sets digital display mode.  Displays date and time
                           in digital form.

   -display name:number    Identifies the host name and display number where
                           the clock is to run.  Normally the host name and
                           display number are found in the environment
                           variable DISPLAY.  Refer to "Display
                           Specification" in topic 2.3.5.

   -fg color               Determines the color of the text and tick marks on
                           color displays.  The default is black.

   -fn font                Specifies a font for use instead of the default
                           font.  Any fixed-width font can be used.  The
                           default is Rom14.500.

   -geometry geometry      Specifies the location and dimensions of the
                           window.  The default setting is -0-0.  For more
                           information, refer to "Geometry Specification" in
                           topic 2.3.2.

   -hd color               Specifies the color of the hands in analog mode on
                           color displays.  The default is black.

   -hl color               Specifies the highlight color.  For example, the
                           outline of the hands of the analog clock can be
                           highlighted with this color.  The default is
                           black.

   -rv                     Reverses foreground and background colors.

   -update sec             Specifies the frequency in seconds with which
                           xclock updates its display.  If the xclock window
                           is obscured and then exposed, xclock overrides
                           this and redisplays immediately.  The default
                           update frequency is 60 seconds.  The specification
                           of an update frequency greater than 30 seconds
                           disables the display of the second hand in analog
                           mode.

2.9.1 .Xdefaults Keywords

   Keywords used with the xclock command.  (Example default file /usr/lpp/X11/defaults)

background
     Specifies the color of the background on color displays.

bodyFont
     Specifies a font to use instead of default font.

border
     Determines the color of the highlighted border on color displays.

borderWidth
     Specifies the width of the window border in pixels.

foreground
    Determines the color of the text and tick marks on color displays.

geometry
    Specifies the location or dimensions of the window.  For more information about geometry, see 
    "Geometry Specification" in topic 2.3.2.

hands
    Determines the color of the hands in the analog clock on color displays.

highlight
    Determines the color of the outline of the hands in the analog  clock on color displays.

internalBorder
   For the xclock command in analog mode, specifies an inner border (the distance between 
   characters and the window's border) in pixels.

mode
   Specifies whether the xclock command starts a digital or analog clock by default.

reverseVideo
   Reverses the foreground and background color.

update
   Specifies the frequency in seconds with which xclock updates its display.

   For more information on these keywords, see "Changing X-Windows Defaults" in topic 3.3.

2.10 xhost

   Purpose  Controls who can have access to X-Windows on the current host machine.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 16

   Description
   The xhost command adds and deletes hosts on the list of machines from which the X Server accepts connections.  Note that you must switch to the X Server window and then back to the original window if running X Server and xhost on the same terminal.  The xhost command will not work unless a client is using the server (examples of clients are aixterm, xclock, and aixwm).

   This command must be executed on the machine to which the display is connected.  You can remove a host from the access list by using the -host option.  Do not remove the current host from the access list. If you do, you must log off the system before making any corrections.

   Entering xhost with no arguments shows the names of the hosts allowed to access your X Server.

   To enable a remote host by default, the host can be defined in the file /etc/X?.hosts (? is the display number to which you enable access).

   For example, the display norma:0 can be accessed by systems defined in the file /etc/X0.hosts on a system that uses the default host name of norma. In both the display name and the file name, 0 indicates the number of the display that the defined remote systems are allowed to access through X-Windows.

xhost Flags

+host
   Specifies a host node ID number and adds the host to the X-Windows access list.  (Same as the host option; the + is optional.)

-host 
   Specifies a host node ID number and deletes a host from the X-Windows access list.

2.11 xinit

   Purpose  Starts an X Server with a single command.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 17

   Description

   The xinit command is a shell script that can be customized to include any commands you need and to open as many windows as you need.  The xinit command starts the X Server, an aixterm window, and an aixwm window manager.  This command can be entered from the AIX command line or as a user's login command specified in the /etc/passwd file.  If xinit is used as a login command in /etc/passwd, the user is automatically logged into X-Windows.

   xinit performs the following operations:

   Executes the user's profile, depending on the -L option
   Starts an X Server, except on the S/370 system, on the default display
   Sets up the DISPLAY environment variable
   Sets up the XPROTO environment variable to be X11
   Starts the aixwm command
   Starts the aixterm command.

   xinit uses the SHELL environment variable to start the command within aixterm.

   If xinit is the login program invoked or if xinit is invoked from /dev/console, a new virtual terminal is opened and an X Server is started on the new virtual terminal.  Terminating the initial terminal window automatically terminates the X Server.

xinit Flags

-L
   Specifies that xinit be used as the login program and that the user profile in ($HOME/.profile) be read and executed.  Otherwise the profile is assumed to be set up.

-X_options
   Specifies any valid X options that do not conflict with aixterm_options.

   aixterm_options Specifies any one of the three valid aixterm options:
                       -geometry
                       -e
                       -n

                   These options are passed to the aixterm command, which opens the initial window.  These options allow the customization of the location, size, and contents of the initial window.

                   The default for -geometry is 80x12+0-0.  You use the -e option to execute an initial command within the login window.  For example, the following line in /etc/passwd starts X-Windows with &dosnames. as the login shell:

                   /usr/bin/xinit -L -e /bin/dos

-X10
   Specifies that the IBM RT X-Windows Version 1.1 X Server should be invoked.  This must be the first option passed to xinit. (IBM RT X-Windows Version 1.1 must be installed for this option to work.  This option is supported on the RT only.)

2.12 xopen
   Purpose  Opens a full-screen window (virtual terminal) and monitors it.

   Syntax

   PICTURE 18

      The xopen command monitors the full-screen window as follows:

   A virtual terminal is opened for the full-screen application.
   An icon window is created in the X-Windows display for the full-screen
       application.
   Moving the cursor to the icon window and clicking any button on the
       mouse activates the full-screen application's virtual terminal.
   When the full-screen application ends, the icon window is removed from
       the X-Windows display.

   Note:  xopen does not work on a remote system.

xopen Flags

-cmd
   Specifies a command to be executed within the full screen window.  Any number of valid command arguments can also be entered.

-display name:number
   Identifies the host name and display number where xopen is to run.

-geometry geometry
   Specifies the location of the icon window.  The default location is that of the locator cursor. Values for width and height are not used if they are not specified.

-ib file
   Specifies the name of an icon bitmap file to be used instead of the default icon bitmap file. This file, assumed to be in bitmap format, is read and the resulting bitmap file is used as the icon bitmap file.  See /usr/include/X11/bitmaps for a sample bitmap file.

-m
   Turns off monitoring of the virtual terminal.  The icon is not displayed in the window and no monitor process is created.  (This option is supported on the RT only.)

-n name
   Provides a window name.  If no name is provided, the command name is the window name.

2.12.1 .Xdefaults Keywords

   The following default keywords are used with the xopen command.  (An example default file is in /usr/lpp/X11/defaults.)

geometry
   Specifies the placement of the icon window.

iconBitmap
   Specifies the icon bitmap file to use instead of the default icon bitmap file.

monitor
   If false, turns off the monitoring of the virtual terminal.

   For more information about these keywords, see "Changing X-Windows Defaults" in topic 3.3.
 
 

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Ardent Tool of Capitalism - MAD Edition! is maintained by Tomáš Slavotínek.
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