AIX PS/2 Version 1.3 provides a set of six primary tools called
EZ-UTILITIES, used to assist in the system management and distribution
of AIX PS/2 1.3.
ezmkverify & ezverify
Ezbackup, ezcustom, ezinstall, and ezmkverify/ezverify
are used when building distribution media (boot diskette, installation
diskette and backup media) perform routine system and/or user data backups
and produce new distribution media when a system configuration change is
made. Ezfilter and ezupdate are used to update existing AIX configurations.
The EZ-UTILITIES package is designed to aid
in the propagation of a master system to a target machine. The use of these
utilities assumes that the master system is fully installed and configured,
then cloned or minimally tailored. The purpose of the EZ-UTILITIES is to
cloning process easier. The EZ-UTILITIES support both ITBU and 6157
family of tape devices
The EZ utilities run on a standalone AIX 1.2.1 system;
TCF is not supported. This package will only work when the target machine
is physically identical to the master machine or is a superset of it.
The ezbackup utility is a front-end process for creating
system and user data back ups. It is used to produce a file list
which is output to the standard out device and then may be directed to
the backup command for actual media generation. ezbackup contains
specific code which makes the generation of machine back ups relatively
simple. ezbackup contains options to create either a system back up, a
user data back up, or a system wide back up.
+------+ +------+ +---------------------+
ezbackup ---| |---|
+- -s -+ +- -u -+ +- -e exclusion_file -+
+- -d directory_name -+ +--- directory_list ---+
Note: ezbackup must be run as super
Note: As part of ezbackup, the
/etc/system file is copied to /etc/system.save
each time ezbackup is executed. This is done because when a new system
is installed using the EZ utilities, the /etc/system file
on the master system should be placed on the target system. However,
/etc/system can not be simply saved to back up media and
later restored. At the conclusion of an installation on a target
system, the /etc/system.save file, if present, is copied
to /etc/system. The user may choose not to have the /etc/system.save
file backed-up by editing the /etc/sysexclude file to include
an entry for the /etc/system.save file. This will
prevent /etc/system.save from being put on the back up
media. Otherwise the /etc/system.save file is included
on the back up media and copied to /etc/system after installation.
-d directory_name allows
for specification of an alternate work directory.
The name of the desired work directory
is given as an argument. The work directory is used for temporary file
space required by ezbackup during execution. The default work directory
is /tmp. In all cases, ezbackup verifies that the work
directory has sufficient space and generates a warning message if there
is not enough space.
-e exclusion_file allows
for the specification of a desired exclusion file.
The exclusion file
should contain a list of complete pathnames forfiles or directories to
be excluded from the back up list.
creates a list of files required for a system back up.
This list will include all
files found on the system, excluding those files and directories listed
in the default system exclusion file (/etc/sysexclude).
/etc/sysexclude is composed of files
that are created during installation; and, therefore, do not have to be
backed up. This option will back up both system and user files and directories.
If only system files and directories are to be backed-up, an exclude file
containing a list of the user directories to exclude has to be specified
on the command line using the -e option. This option cannot
be used with the -u flag.
creates a list of files required for a user data back up.
This list will contain only those
files and directories defined as being user files. The /etc/usrlist
file is created by the user to list files/directories to back up.
Additional directories to include in the back up list can be specified
at the end of the command line. This option cannot be used with the -s
directory_list This file
contains the full pathnames of directories to be added to the back up list.
When including this list with the -u
option, the files to be backed up will include those listed in both lists
(directory_list and /etc/usrlist).
1. To create a system minidisk back up:
-s -e /etc/usrlist | backup -ivf/dev/rst0 -s 6560 -d 1050
This tells ezbackup to exclude a list
of files contained within /etc/sysexclude and not to back
up those directories listed in the /etc/usrlist file, as
these directories are to be considered user files. The /etc/usrlist
file needs to be created with an editor. Without the list contained
in this file all files are backed up. The output from ezbackup is piped
to the backup command which displays the files as they are being backed
up. An Internal Tape Backup Unit (ITBU), which contains an 80MB tape,
is the output device.
2. To create a user files back up:
-u -d /usr/work | backup -ivf/dev/rst0 -s 6560 -d 1050
This tells ezbackup to back up only
those files whose names are contained within the /etc/usrlist
file and to use the /usr/work directory as its work directory.
You must create the /etc/usrlist file containing a list
of files that are to be considered user files. The output from ezbackup
is piped to the backup command which displays the files as they are being
backed up. An Internal Tape Backup Unit (ITBU), which contains an
80MB tape, is the output device.
/etc/sysexclude Default system exclusion file.
/etc/usrlist List of directories/files
to include in user back up.
/etc/system Default system configuration
ezcustom is used for creating customized boot and install
diskettes. These diskettes allow for exact re-creation of the current
system configurations on another system. The customized diskettes
contain the information necessary to allow the install process to continue
without user input. The information provided when using the existing installation
tools results in different values being stored in the system NVRAM (time
zone, monitor type, etc.) and in the creation of AIX minidisks. The
boot diskette produced by ezcustom contains an image of the system NVRAM
while the install diskette contains information describing the AIX minidisks.
During the actual installation phase of the EZ utilities,
a disk space check is done on the target machine. If the target machine
is smaller than the master system, an error message is provided and EZ
install is aborted. Check the fsmap1 file described
below for the actual disk space needed on the target machine to perform
the installation. If the targer machine is larger than or equal to
the master machine, the installation continues. A warning message
is provided before any AIX minidisks is deleted. At this point, a
user may choose 'n' to abort EZ install or choose 'y'
to delete the minidisks and continue with the installation.
Note: If you choose 'n'
to abort EZ install, you must remember to use the original boot diskette
(NOT EZ boot) to reboot the system and restore the values which have been
changed in NVRAM by EZ install. ezcustom must be run as super user.
Once the ezcustom script is started, the primary menu is displayed:
 Make boot diskette
 Make install diskette
 Change defaults
Chose the option by entering the corresponding number or "q".
This menu returns after each option has completed.
The following are the options available from the ezcustom primary menu:
 Make boot diskette
This option creates a single diskette or multiple diskettes which are used
when booting the new system.
Informational messages will first be displayed.
Then the system inquires if you wish to format
a diskette and formats it will a file system
Then the following message is displayed:
the created filesystem onto the diskette(s)
will prompt you for diskettes as needed
1 into /dev/fd0 and press Enter
Insert the diskette to create the boot diskette.
The primary menu is re-displayed when finished.
 Make install diskette
This option creates a customized install diskette based upon the current
system's configurations. The current system's install diskette and a blank
diskette are required for execution of this option.
First a message stating that the contents of
the /etc/install_devs file is being read is displayed.
Then a menu listing the entries contained in this file is displayed.
This menu is used to determine which devices will be eligible installation
devices. To choose those devices to be installed on the system, enter
the number corresponding to the name of the desired device. A comma
or space should be placed between each number. Press the enter key
to choose all the devices listed. If no specific devices are chosen
the maximum number will be selected (from the top to the bottom of the
The selected device entries (as taken from
the /etc/install_devs file) are put into a file called
inst_devs, and placed in the /etc directory
on the new install diskette.
When the following prompt appears, insert the
write-protected master install diskette when the following prompt
Please insert the write-protected
MASTER INSTALL DISKETTE to be
customized in /dev/fd0 and
NOTE: This diskette must be write-protected.
Next the following prompt for the blank diskette
Please replace THE MASTER INSTALL
DISKETTE in /dev/fd0 with a
write-enabled diskette and
You will be asked if this diskette requires
formatting. This diskette must be write enabled, as it will be used
to create the customized install diskette.
Next the following query is displayed:
Delete all user minidisks when
using this INSTALL DISK?(default: yes)
This query provides information for installation
on the target system. Enter 'no' to keep user minidisks, or 'yes'
to have user minidisks deleted in the new system.
Once writing to the install diskette is complete,
the primary menu is re-displayed.
 Change defaults
This option allows for modification of the default values used by ezcustom.
A menu shows the default values of the information
required by ezcustom. To modify one of these values, enter the number corresponding
to the desired information field. A query for the new data is displayed.
After entering the new data, the defaults menu is redisplayed. Once
modifications are complete, enter the number corresponding to the Continue
option to return to the primary menu.
The change defaults menu screen appears as:
1. Drive ->
2. KERNEL -> (/local/unix.std)
3. NVRAMINFO -> (/local/nvramcfg.info)
4. FS2FD ->
5. Work directory -> (/tmp)
6. EZLOCATION -> (/etc)
Descriptions of these fields are as follows:
Indicates the default diskette drive used to create the boot and
Indicates the default kernel used on the target system.
the location and name of the file containing information on the
Indicates the location of the fs2fd module. (The fs2fd module is
used to move
the Kernel onto the boot diskette.)
Work directory: Specifies
the directory where ezcustom processing will take place.
the directory where the files required by ezcustom are stored. The
required files are fsmap1 and nvram1.
Once execution of ezcustom has completed, the diskettes produced should
be copied, and the originals stored in a safe place.
During execution of ezcustom, two files are created. These files
are used during the installation process. The files created are /etc/fsmap1
and /nvram1. Both files are in ASCII text format
and may be edited after the customized diskette containing the file is
The /etc/fsmap1 file is placed on the customized install
diskette. This file contains descriptions of the AIX minidisks present
on the master system. This file is used during target system installation
to create minidisks which are copies of the master system.
If the first line is "yes", all minidisks are deleted.
If the first line is "no", system minidisks are deleted, but user minidisks
are not. The default is "no".
The following lines contain four fields separated
by white space. These fields are:
name of minidisk
size of minidisk
in 1K blocks
number of inodes
Comments are not allowed. Minidisks that are not
being created must have a zero value as the minidisk size.
An example of the fsmap1 file:
0 0 0
0 45000 4500
1 12000 1200
0 9000 100
1 4000 400
The previous example deletes all minidisks, does
not create the /u minidisk, creates / on
hdisk0 with a size of 45000 blks and 4500 inodes, creates the local minidisk,
/aixps, on hdisk1 with a size of 12000 blocks and 1200
inodes, creates the /tmp minidisk on /aixps/tmp
on hdisk0 with a size of 9000 and 100 inodes, and creates a user minidisk
on hdisk1 with a size of 4000 blocks and 400 inodes
The /nvram1 file is placed on the customized boot diskette.
It contains descriptions of the contents of the master system's NVRAM.
During target system installations, this file is referenced to update the
target system's NVRAM.
The /nvram1 file contains the following information:
The keyboard language to use
The type of display that is installed on the machine
The time zone to use
Whether or not daylight savings time is used
The NLS translation language
The name of the machine
This data is structured in the manner shown above, with one entry per
line. A sample nvram1 file would appear as:
This machine's NVRAM would be set up with US English as
the keyboard language, the display type as 8503, the time zone as Central
Standard Time, Daylight saving time as being observed, the NLS translation
language as US and the machine name as being aixtest.
/etc/fsmap1 contains descriptions of AIX minidisks
/nvram1 contains descriptions
of the system's NVRAM
ezfilter is a script used to select desired FSUs (Field
Serviceable Units) from the standard IBM provided PTF diskette sets.
ezfilter is run on the master machine and is used as a means to create
media for updating specifically selected FSUs on target machines.
The chosen FSUs, possibly from both sets of PTF diskettes, are combined
onto one media (e.g. diskette, tape), and, in turn,
this newly created media is used by ezupdate to update a target machine.
Note: ezfilter must be run as super
+- -d input_device -+ +- -s storage_directory -+
+- -o output_device
-+ ^ +--- FSU ---+ |
When ezfilter is executed, the following screens/displays will be seen:
1. If the input media has not been inserted
in the proper device, a prompt for the input media will be displayed.
Insert the input media into the proper device.
2. Messages indicating the gathering of control
information are shown.
3. If no FSUs were specified on the command
line, a menu containing a listing of the FSUs available is displayed.
The FSUs will be specified by a short name and a description (e.g. extp
Extended Users Support). This menu list will vary with the contents
of the diskettes or tape being used for input. When the prompt
Enter elements (<cr> for all elements):
is shown, enter the names
of those FSUs to be put on the customized update media, and press Enter.
These names should be separated by white space.
4. A series of informational messages telling
ezfilter's progress will be displayed.
5. If the output media has not been inserted
in the proper device, a prompt for the output media will be displayed.
Insert the output media into the proper device.
6. When the "Done" message is shown, execution
of ezfilter has completed.
ezfilter may be run multiple times to consolidate various
FSUs from an update media set. It must be run at least once for every
update media set that contributes FSUs to the update image used by ezupdate.
Each time ezfilter is run the FSUs selected are added to those already
present in the storage directory. FSUs can not be deleted from this
directory. If a FSU is erroneously chosen, the storage directory
must be deleted and ezfilter must be re-executed.
Should an FSU be selected multiple times, it will only
be copied to the storage directory one time. Once a selected FSU
is in the storage directory, it will not be overwritten. Subsequent
selections of this FSU will be ignored.
The media produced by ezfilter is intended to be used with ezupdate
for updating target machines and is also compatible with updatep.
-d input_device expects an
argument specifying device from which update material will be taken.
expects an argument specifying a directory where the FSUs being specified
directory, ezfilter will display a warning message.
-o output_device expects
an argument specifying the desired output device. '+' is used to
specify no output. '-' is used to send the output to stdout.
An optional list of FSUs to include on the customized update
media may be specified at the end of the command line. If this list is
not included, a menu showing the possible FSUs to choose will be displayed
To create a tape of selected FSUs from diskette:
This command uses the /dev/fd0 device for
input, stores the FSUs being extracted in the /local/updates
directory, and outputs the contents of the /local/updates
directory to the /dev/st0 device (Internal Tape Backup
Unit). Specification of the FSUs being extracted occurs during ezfilter
execution, when the FSU listing menu is displayed.
Ezmkverify is a program that creates a file containing
the name of every file and directory that should be present on an installed
system. This file is named /etc/verify.install and
is used by the ezverify program that is executed after a system installation
occurs. Ezmkverify displays the file names as each entry is inserted in
the verify.install file. The verify.install
file containing the required file list will automatically be produced and
placed in the /etc directory.
NOTE: Ezmkverify must be run as super user.
Ezverify is a program that runs after installation of a
target system is complete. The ezverify program uses the verify.install
file produced by ezmkverify as input to ensure that the files installed
on the new system are the same as those found on the original master system.
Ezverify can be made to execute automatically upon completion of installation
by editing the /.post.custom file (uncomment the line invoking
ezverify). The /.post.custom file is a script that
is invoked at the conclusion of system installation.
Note: Ezmkverify must
be run immediately prior to ezbackup to ensure that the verify.install
file is present when ezbackup is run, and that the verify.install
file accurately reflects the data present on the back up media. Executing
ezverify after /.post.custom is invoked may produce invalid
/etc/verify.install list of all files and
directories on system.
script file invoked after system installation.
ezupdate is a script that allows for selective application
of updated FSUs to target machines. ezupdate uses customized media
produced by ezfilter (which is run on the master system) to update only
those FSUs included on the media. ezupdate allows for system updates
to be applied with no user interaction.
Note: ezupdate must be run as super
+--------+ +--------+ +--------+ +----------------+
ezupdate ---| |
| | |
+- -s -+ +- -r -+ +-
-F -+ +- -l logfile -+
+- input device
or file -+
Once execution of ezupdate begins, the following screens are seen:
1. Informational messages showing the progress of
ezupdate are displayed.
2. If the input media has not already been inserted,
a prompt for insertion of the media is displayed. Insert the media
in the proper device and press Enter.
if a file is being used as input, no user interaction will be required.
3. The names of the FSUs being updated are displayed,
along with other informational messages. These messages will vary
with the exact FSUs being updated.
4. When the messages "048-088 All requested
update processing completed" and "ezupdate: successful
completion" are displayed, ezupdate execution has completed.
If a machine reboot is required a message indicating this will also be
Messages beginning with "ezupdate:" are
always output to the terminal where ezupdate was invoked. Messages
beginning with a reference number (such as 048-088) go to stdout and may
Also, if ezupdate fails and exits with an error, the integrity
of the system cannot be ensured. It is best to use ezbackup to save
the state of the system prior to running ezupdate.
Remote eupdate of a target system.
1. The filtered update file created by ezfilter
should be placed on the target system. This may be done using any
kind of remote connection that allows for file transfer.
2. Use a remote shell to run ezupdate on the target
machine. Specify the file transferred from the master machine as
-F causes prerequisite check
failures to be ignored and the update to be applied. All prerequisite
failures are still reported.
-l logfile causes all output
to be written to <logfile> rather than being sent to
stdout. A message is displayed on screen stating output is being
directed to <logfile>. This flag is ignored if
the PTF image is to be read from diskettes (this requires volume exchange
prompting). Use of this option allows ezupdate to run in the background.
-r results in an automatic
shutdown and reboot following completion of the updates if the kernel has
been rebuilt. This flag is ignored if the PTF media is on diskette
because a reboot would not succeed with a PTF diskette mounted in the diskette
drive. Default action is for manual reboot.
-s shows what steps would
occur, but does not actually execute the updates. It lists which FSUs would
have been updated. System checks are performed to make sure the system
is ready for updating.
To update a machine from tape and then automatically reboot (if necessary):
ezupdate -r -l /tmp/update.log /dev/st0
This command invokes ezupdate using the /dev/st0
device (the Internal Tape Backup Unit) for input, automatically reboots
the machine after completion of the updates if a kernel rebuild occurs,
and directs output to /tmp/update.log.